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Données Semistructurées et XML cours pdf

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cours avancé de Données Semistructurées et XML 

 :La révolution Internet

  • Depuis 10 ans, Internet révolutionne l’informatique grand publique
  • Au début, un serveur Web était essentiellement un serveur de documents HTML.
  • Depuis, les serveurs Web sont devenus des vrais serveur d’applications :
  1. qui accèdent aux bases de données
  2. fournissent des notions de session, transaction, sécurité
  3. avec des nouvelles technologies comme Java/Javascript, PHP, cookies,

Nouvelles applications Web

  • Commerce électronique:
  1. Services: réservation de train, météo,
  2. Bourse en-ligne
  3. B2B, B2C

ign: center;">Évolution des Systèmes d’Information

Années70: Système de Fichiers SGBD: séparation entre le stockage physique et la représentation logique des données par un modèlelogique (architectures à deux niveaux/two-tier)

Années90: Serveur de données monolithiques Portails Web/Entrepôts de données/Portails d’entreprises: séparation entre les modèles logiques des données (SGBD relationnel ou objet, documents structurés,...) et les applications par de modèles de médiation ou d’intégration (architectures à trois niveaux/three-tier)

Nouveau Besoin: Intégration de Données

Les nouvelles applications du Web ont besoin d’échanger ,d’interroger et d’intégrer des données hétérogènes:

Bases de Données: relationnels, objets

Documents: XML, SGML,HTML

Données multimedia: figures, tableaux, photos, dessins, audio, video, spatiales

Modèlesde Données Semi-structurées

Modèles de données “universels” qui permet de représenter des structures

Irrégulières: on peut comparerd es données dans formatsd ifférents(e.g. une chaîne de caractères avecu nn-uplet)

Implicites: données et                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      structures (grammaire, schéma)sontmélangées

Partielles:   structurées etnon-structurées

Exemples: OEM, XML, graphes/arbres étiquetés

Communautés Web (online communities): Napster,

cours avancé de Données Semistructurées et XML    

 

Table des matières :

3 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

10 Modèles Semi-structurées : Principes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

19 XML: CONCEPTS DE BASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

24 Bibliographie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

37 DTD : Déclaration de la Structure d’un Document XML . . . . . . . . . 37

52 SELECTION DE FRAGMENTS XML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

66 TRANSFORMATION DE DOCUMENTS XML . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

94 INTERROGATION DE DOCUMENTS XML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

cours avancé de Données Semistructurées et XML 


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