Données Semistructurées et XML cours pdf

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cours avancé de Données Semistructurées et XML 

 :La révolution Internet

  • Depuis 10 ans, Internet révolutionne l’informatique grand publique
  • Au début, un serveur Web était essentiellement un serveur de documents HTML.
  • Depuis, les serveurs Web sont devenus des vrais serveur d’applications :
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  • qui accèdent aux bases de données
  • fournissent des notions de session, transaction, sécurité
  • avec des nouvelles technologies comme Java/Javascript, PHP, cookies,
  • Nouvelles applications Web

    • Commerce électronique:
    1. Services: réservation de train, météo,
    2. Bourse en-ligne
    3. B2B, B2C

    Évolution des Systèmes d’Information

    Années70: Système de Fichiers SGBD: séparation entre le stockage physique et la représentation logique des données par un modèlelogique (architectures à deux niveaux/two-tier)

    Années90: Serveur de données monolithiques Portails Web/Entrepôts de données/Portails d’entreprises: séparation entre les modèles logiques des données (SGBD relationnel ou objet, documents structurés,...) et les applications par de modèles de médiation ou d’intégration (architectures à trois niveaux/three-tier)

    Nouveau Besoin: Intégration de Données

    Les nouvelles applications du Web ont besoin d’échanger ,d’interroger et d’intégrer des données hétérogènes:

    Bases de Données: relationnels, objets

    Documents: XML, SGML,HTML

    Données multimedia: figures, tableaux, photos, dessins, audio, video, spatiales

    Modèlesde Données Semi-structurées

    Modèles de données “universels” qui permet de représenter des structures

    Irrégulières: on peut comparerd es données dans formatsd ifférents(e.g. une chaîne de caractères avecu nn-uplet)

    Implicites: données et                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      structures (grammaire, schéma)sontmélangées

    Partielles:   structurées etnon-structurées

    Exemples: OEM, XML, graphes/arbres étiquetés

    Communautés Web (online communities): Napster,

    cours avancé de Données Semistructurées et XML    

     

    Table des matières :

    3 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

    10 Modèles Semi-structurées : Principes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

    19 XML: CONCEPTS DE BASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

    24 Bibliographie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

    37 DTD : Déclaration de la Structure d’un Document XML . . . . . . . . . 37

    52 SELECTION DE FRAGMENTS XML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

    66 TRANSFORMATION DE DOCUMENTS XML . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

    94 INTERROGATION DE DOCUMENTS XML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

    cours avancé de Données Semistructurées et XML 



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