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 A spreadsheet is essentially a matrix of rows and columns. Consider a sheet of paper on which horizontal and vertical lines are drawn to yield a rectangular grid. The grid namely a cell, is the result of the intersection of a row with a column. Such a structure is called a Spreadsheet.

 A spreadsheet package contains electronic equivalent of a pen, an eraser and large sheet of paper with vertical and horizontal lines to give rows and columns. The cursor position uniquely shown in dark mode indicates where the pen is currently pointing. We can enter text or numbers at any position on the worksheet. We can enter a formula in a cell where we want to perform a calculation and results are to be displayed. A powerful recalculation facility jumps into action each time we update the cell contents with new data.

         MS-Excel is the most powerful spreadsheet package brought by

Microsoft. The three main components of this package are

 Electronic spreadsheet

 Database management  Generation of Charts.

Each workbook provides 3 worksheets with facility to increase the number of sheets. Each sheet provides 256 columns and 65536 rows to work with. Though the spreadsheet packages were originally designed for accountants, they have become popular with almost everyone working with figures. Sales executives, book-keepers, officers, students, research scholars, investors bankers etc, almost any one find some form of application for it. 

You will learn the following features at the end of this section.

 Starting Excel 2003

 Using Help

 Workbook Management

 Cursor Management

 Manipulating Data

 Using Formulae and Functions

 Formatting Spreadsheet

 Printing and Layout

 Creating Charts and Graphs

Starting Excel 2003

 Switch on your computer and click on the Start button at the bottom left of the screen.

 Move the mouse pointer to Programs, then across to Microsoft Excel, then click on Excel as shown in this screen.

 When you open Excel a screen similar to this will appear

 The options shown below is called as  Menu Bar

 The collection of icons for common operations shown below is called as  Standard Tool Bar

 The formula bar is the place in which you enter the formula(=A3*B5)

 The alphabets A,B… are known as columns

 This is the name of the workbook. (Book1)

 The rows are numbered as  1,2,3… 

 Sheet1,Sheet2, Sheet3 are known as worksheet tabs

How to use Help Menu

 Click on Help, Contents and Index, then click on the Index tab. The following screen will appear

 Type the first few letters to see the help entries for those letters.

 You can get the printout of any help topic by selecting it, right clicking  and then clicking  Print Topic.

Workbook Management

Task 1: Creating a new workbook

 Click on File menu and then click on New. 

 Click Workbook and then click OK button. You will get the screen as shown below.

 Enter data as shown in the figure below :

Task 2: Saving Workbook

   Click on File menu and then click save. You will get the below screen

 In the File name text box, type sample and then click Save button

Task 3: Opening an existing workbook

 Click on the File menu and click on Open. The open dialog box will appear

 Click on some file (Example: ), then click on Open. 

Task 4: Closing your workbook 

 Click on File menu, then click Close to close your workbook

Cursor Management

Task 1: Moving around the worksheet

 Open workbook.

 Move the cursor in your worksheet by using the arrow keys on the right-hand side of the keyboard.

 When you have got lots of rows of data you can move the cursor more quickly by using the PgUp and PgDn keys to move up and down a screen at a time.  

 To move one screen to the right, press the Alt key and PgDn keys together.

 To move one screen to the left, press the Alt and PgUp keys together.

 To move further to the right, just keep pressing the right arrow key

  To move back to cell A1, press the Ctrl and Home keys together.

 Pressing the Home key on its own takes you back to column A

 To move to the last column(IV) press the Ctrl and right arrow keys together.

 To move to last cell containing data, press Ctrl and End keys together.

 To move to the last row(65,536), press Ctrl and the down arrow keys together.

 You can also move the cursor with the mouse. Move the mouse pointer to the location you want. Press and release the left mouse button once when the cursor is where you want it.

Task 2: Moving to a Specified cell

 Click on the Edit menu, choose Go To. You will get the below screen

 Enter the destination cell reference in the Reference text box.

 Click OK to move directly to the specified cell.

Data Manipulation

Task 1: Entering data

 Start Excel. Click File and then New. An empty worksheet appears as shown below

 Type Expenditure in cell A1 then press down arrow key to move to cell A2.

 Type Month then press the down arrow key  to move to cell A3

 Continue to type the data. The resulting worksheet should appear like the following screen.

 Save your work by clicking File and then Save As. This dialog box appears.

 Type cash in the File Name text box and then click Save button. Excel automatically adds the extension .xls to your file name.

Task 2: Editing data

 Click File and then click Open.

 Click and then click Open.

 Move the mouse pointer to cell D4, click and release. The cell is highlighted and 18 appears in the formula bar.

 Move the mouse pointer to the formula bar and click once to the right of 18.

 Use the Backspace key to delete 8,then type 4 and press Enter. Cell D4 now contains the value 14.

Task 3: Replacing cell data

 Make the cell B5 active by clicking on it.

 Type 200 and press Enter. The cell B5 will now contain the value 200 replacing old value (150).

Task 4: Deleting cell contents

 Move to cell C5 and click to select.

 Press the Delete key.

 The cell becomes blank.

 Drop down the Edit menu and click Undo to reinstate the 145. Excel 97 allows 16 levels of undo. You can use Undo and Redo  buttons also.

Task 5: Copying data

 Open the cash spreadsheet.

 Select the cells D3 to D5

 Click Edit menu and then click Copy.

 Select the cells F3 to F5.

 Click Edit menu and then click Paste.

 Now the cells D3 to D5 are copied into F3 to F5.

Task 6: Moving data

 Open spreadsheet.

 Select the cells from B3 to B5.

 Click Edit menu and then click Cut.

 Select the cells G3 to G5.

 Click Edit menu and then click Paste.

Task 7: Data Auto Fill 

There is an easy method to fill the data in columns and rows. The data may be Numeric or dates and text.

To fill Slno by using auto fill

? Type Slno for 2 cells i.e 1,2 in the cells A1 and A2 respectively.

? Select two cells and drag the Fill Handle +  

To fill dates in the cells

? Type  date in the cell

? Select the cell and drag the Fill Handle

We can customize the lists with different text data to minimize the redundancy of work.

Some of the lists are listed below:

1.   Jan, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, June, July…. like months

2.   Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday…Like week days

3.   Adilabad, Anatapur, Chittor, Cuddapah… like District names

4.   Ravi, Kiran, Praveen, Rama…. like employees list

To create a customized list follow the steps given below:

? Click Tools Menu ,Click Options then click Custom Lists tab, Then you will find the figure given below: 

? Click NEW LIST and enter the list in the List entries window

? Click Add button then click OK button then your list will be added to the Custom Lists. That list you can use as and when required to type.

? Now you can Drag the fill handle (+ ) to get the list automatically.

Using Formulae and Functions

Task 1: Entering a formulae

 Click File and then click New.

 Enter the data in the new worksheet as shown below

 Cell B6 should contain formula. Move the cell pointer to cell B6.

 Type =B3+B5(formulae and functions should always begin with = sign)

 Cell B6 will now contain the value 350

 Look at cell B6; you will see the result of the formula in the cell B6 rather than formula.

 Now repeat the appropriate formula for cell C6, D6.

 Save your worksheet as .

Task 2: Editing Formulae

 Move the cursor to the formula bar with the mouse, clicking once.

 Make the desired changes.

 When you have finished editing the formulae, press the Enter key for the changes to take effect.


 Edit the contents by pressing F2 key on the keyboard

Task 3: Displaying and Printing formulae

 Click Tools menu and then click Options. 

 Click View tab.

 In Window options check Formulas check box. The below screen appears.

 Click OK button.

 To print the worksheet with formulae displayed, click File menu and click on Print Preview. If the layout is satisfactory, click on the Print button.

Task 4: Using the SUM function

 Open spreadsheet.

 Suppose if you want the summation of the cells B3 to B5 should appear in the cell B6, then first select the cells from B3 to B6.

 Click the Auto Sum       icon on the toolbar. 

 The result of (B3+B4+B5) will appear in the cell B6.

Task 4: Copying Formulae

 Open spreadsheet.

 If you want to copy the formula in the cell B6 to C6,D6,E6 then first select the cell B6.

 Move the cursor to the lower right corner of the cell B6. The cursor will change to + icon.

 Drag the cursor from B6 to E6 and release left mouse button.

 You will notice that the cells C6, D6 and E6 are updated immediately as shown below.

Task 5: Copying formulae using absolute addressing

 Create the worksheet shown below and save ABS

 If you copy the formula in the cell c2 to c3, c4, c5 you will get the incorrect

 result because the formula will change in the cell (C3)to B3*A10 but the value in the A10 is not defined. The reason is that we are copying relative address but not absolute address. To use absolute address move to c2 cell.

 Edit the formula to =B2+($B$2*$A$9) and press Enter key.  Copy the formula to cells C3 to C5.  

Formatting Spreadsheet

Task1: Increasing column width

 Open an existing worksheet(For example )

 Move the mouse pointer to the position(column B)shown below in the column header. When the black cross appears, hold down the left button and drag the mouse to the right to increase the column width by the required amount.

Task 2: Decreasing column width

 Open spreadsheet.

 Move the mouse pointer to the column B. When the black cross appears, hold down the left button and drag the mouse to the left to reduce the cell width.

 Task 3: Changing width of all cells in a spreadsheet

 Open spreadsheet

 Select the entire worksheet by clicking the Select All button (to the left of A1 cell) at the top left corner of the worksheet. The worksheet changes from white to black.                     

 Click Format menu, click Column, then click Width

 In the column width text box type 20, then click OK button. Your worksheet cells should all increase in width.

 You will get the below screen. You will notice that widths of all columns are now changes to 20

 Click the Undo button to revert to the previous cell width.

Task 3: Inserting Columns

 Open spreadsheet.

 Move to cell B2 and click.

 Click Insert menu, click Columns. You will get the below screen.

 A blank column will be inserted before(to the left of column B)

Task 4: Deleting Column contents

 Open spreadsheet.

 Move the mouse pointer to column E header and click to select      column E

 Press Delete button. The column contents will be deleted.  Click Undo button to revert to the previous screen.

Task 5: Removing columns, rows, and cells completely

 Select individual columns or rows or cells.

 Click Edit menu and click Delete

Task 6: Inserting a row

 When you insert a row, it is inserted above the current row, so if you want to insert a new row above row 6(between rows 5 and

6), place the cursor on a cell in row 6 and   Click on the Insert menu.

 Click Entire Rows insert a blank row between rows 5 and 6.

Task 7: Deleting row contents

 Open spreadsheet.

 Move the mouse pointer to row 2 header and click to select the row as shown below

 Press Delete to remove the contents of row.

 Click the Undo button to cancel the delete operation.

Task 7: Inserting cells

 Open spreadsheet.

 Select cells B2 to D4 by moving the mouse pointer to cell B2, holding down the left mouse button and dragging the mouse pointer to cell D4, then releasing the left button. The cells should be highlighted.

 Click Insert menu and click Cells. This dialog box appears.

 Click OK to shift the cell down.

Task 8: Changing data justification

 Open spreadsheet.

 Select the cell B2 as shown below.

 Here the text “Jan” by default left justified. You can modify alignment as right justified or center by clicking right justify     or center the text  

within the cell by clicking  respectively.

Task 9: Merge and Center data 

 Open spreadsheet.

 Select the cells A1 to H1 as shown below

 Click Merge and Center button on the toolbar 

 You will get the below screen.

Task 10: Formatting cells

 Create a new spreadsheet as shown below and save it as “”

 Now you can format the cells in column C by selecting column C by clicking on the column heading

 Click Format menu and click on Cells. Click on Number.  Use the Down arrow in the Decimal Places to set to 0. Click OK.

 Now repeat the formatting but this time format the cells to two decimal places.

 Again, repeating the formatting operation, but this time to four decimal places.

 Finally, format the cells to eight decimal places. This screen will appear.

 The #### symbols indicate that the cell is too narrow to display the data in the chosen format. However, if you increase the cell width sufficiently, the data will be displayed to eight decimal places.

 Increase the width column C until the data is displayed.

 Now change the formatting back to two decimal places, and reduce the column width to a suitable width.

Changing the data Orientation (Vertical, Horizontal etc.)

 Excel offers three options that let you control the orientation of the text within a cell. These are Text alignment, Text orientation, and Text control.

Vertical text alignment can be any one of the following

To display text vertically in a cell:

? Choose Cells from the Format menu.

? Click the Alignment Tab.

? Specify the desired text orientation by selecting one of the orientation boxes.

? Select the Wrap text check box, if you want Excel to wrap the text

? Click OK

Here are some examples of the different alignment options 

? Select vertical list box and select top to align the data at the top of the cell (Eg: cell A1)

? The below figure shows you different Text control options.

Printing and layout

Task 1: Previewing a printout

 Open spreadsheet.

 Click on the File menu and click on Print Preview. A screen similar to this should appear.

Since the size of the text is very small, you can click on Zoom button, it magnifies the worksheet. Clicking on Zoom second time returns you to the original preview format.

 Press PgDn to move through your worksheet if it is more than one page long.

 Before printing make sure that your printer is switched on, is loaded with the appropriate paper, and is on-line.

 If you are happy with the layout of your document, click on the

Print button to obtain a printout. You should see a message on screen telling you that your file is being printer, and on which paper.

Task 2: Printing landscape

 To select landscape mode, click on the File menu, Page Setup this screen will appear.

 Click on the Landscape button.

Task 3: Fitting your worksheet to one page

 In the above screen click on the Fit To: box and type: 1 page wide by 1 page tall.

If you need to make changes to your worksheet before printing, click on the Close button to return to your workbook.

Task 4: Adjusting margins

 In the Page Setup dialog box, click the Margins tab and enter the appropriate sizes(in inches or centimeters)

Task 5: Setting Header/Footer to your worksheet

 From the Page Setup dialog box, click on the Header/Footer tab to display the below screen.

 In the Header box either you select a title from the drop down menu or enter your own title. Similarly for Footer box also you can set your own title.

 Click on OK.

Task 6: Printing selected cells

 Open spreadsheet.

 Click on the row 2 button (or any other row containing data) to highlight the entire row.

Click on File, Print Area, Set Print Area. The preview screen should only display the selected cells. (Row 2).

 If the preview is satisfactory, click the Print button to print out only row 2.

 Click on File, Print Area, Clear Print Area to reset the Print Area.

Creating charts and graphs

Task 1: Creating a Pie Chart

 Open spreadsheet.

 Select the cells A1 to G5 as shown below

 Click on Insert menu and click Chart option. This will start the Office Assistant, to guide you through creating chart.

 Follow the instructions in each step of the Wizard. The Assistant explains each step.

 At step 3, you can specify the Chart title, X-axis title and Yaxis title separately.

 At step 4, click As object in sheet 1, then click Finish.

 Your chart is now finished. Save as cash4. Your chart is saved with the spreadsheet. This type of chart is known as an embedded chart and is saved with its worksheet.

Task 2: Creating charts when the data range is not continuous


 If your requirement is create a chart to show expenditure for February, then first select cells A2 to A5.

 Hold down the Ctrl key and, while holding it down, select cells C2 to C5. Your screen should be similar to this one.

 Click on the Chart Wizard and create a column chart. Your screen should look similar to this.

If your chart doesn’t appear to show any data, you probably included some other cells, probably A1 and/or C1. If so, delete your chart and re-select the correct range.

Task 3: Sizing a chart         

? Open the created earlier. A screen similar to this one should appear.

 The small black markers at each corner and mid-way along each side of the chart. These indicate that the chart is selected, and are called its selection squares.

 Click on the mid-point marker on the right-hand side, hold down the left mouse button and drag the mouse to the right about one inch(3cm), then release the mouse. The width of the chart will have increased.

 Now practice the same operation on the mid-point marker of each of the other sides of the chart.

 Now try the above, but this time on one of the four corner markers. Note that when you use these techniques, the whole chart changes in size, but it retains its original proportions.

 Now use the same technique to reduce the size of the chart.

Task 4: Deleting Charts

 Make sure the chart is selected(the small black markers are visible). If not, move the mouse pointer into the chart area and click and release the left mouse button once.

 Press Delete to delete the chart.

Task 5: Moving charts and graphs

 Make the chart active.

 Move the mouse pointer into the chart area.

 Hold down the left mouse button and drag the chart to the desired position.

Task 6: Chart headings and labels

 While creating charts the step3 asks for Chart heading, labels for X-axis and Y-axis. You can define your own labels or click Next button so that the default values can be accepted.  

 For example Chart title is Expenditure, X-axis label is months and  

Y-axis label is Sales

Task 7: Editing chart items

 Create the chart as shown below and save it as .

 Click the chart title(Expenditure). Selection markers(small black squares) will appear around the selected item.

 You can move or size the title in the same way that you can move or size a chart. Click the title box and drag it up by about one inch (3 cm), then release the mouse.

 You can format the title by selecting it, then right clicking and then selecting “Format Chart Title” from the drop down menu.

You will get the below screen.

 You can select font type, font style and font size as shown above

 Click OK.

Task 8: Adding text to a chart

 Open worksheet.

 Click View menu, click Toolbars, Drawing.

 Click the Text box icon on the Drawing toolbar.

 Draw a text box inside the chart area as shown below

 Click inside the text box. A flashing text cursor will appear. Now type Household Expenditure

 You can use the same procedure for any other text that you want to appear in charts.

Task 9: Adding a legend to a chart

 Create a pie chart as shown below.

 Display the Chart toolbar, by dropping down the view menu and clicking Toolbars, Chart. In the above figure the legend is already added.

 Click inside the pie chart, then click once on the add or delete legend button on the Chart toolbar. The legend will be added if not already present and removed if it is currently present.

 You can also add or delete a legend from the Chart, Chart options menu

Task 10: Adding gridlines to a chart

 Open worksheet and change chart type to Column chart.

 Click Chart, Chart options to display this box.

 Click the Gridlines tab and tick the gridlines boxes required.

Task 11: Adding data labels to a chart

 Open cash3 worksheet and change chart type to pie chart.

 Drop-down the chart menu and click Chart options.

 Click on the Data Labels tab.

 Click on Show label and percent. Your screen should look similar to this.