• Understand the use of spreadsheets and Excel
• Learn the parts of the Excel window
• Scroll through a worksheet and navigate between worksheets
• Create and save a workbook file
• Enter text, numbers, and dates into a worksheet
• Resize, insert, and remove columns and rows
• Select and move cell ranges
• Insert formulas and functions
• Insert, delete, move, and rename worksheets
• Work with editing tools
• Excel Shortcuts and formulas
• Microsoft Office Excel 2007 (or Excel) is a computer program used to enter, analyze, and present quantitative data
• A spreadsheet is a collection of text and numbers laid out in a rectangular grid.
– Often used in business for budgeting, inventory management, and decision making
• What-if analysis lets you change one or more values in a spreadsheet and then assess the effect those changes have on the calculated values
• Excel provides several ways to navigate a worksheet
• Before you begin to enter data into a workbook, you should develop a plan
– Planning analysis sheet
• The formula bar displays the content of the active cell
• Text data is a combination of letters, numbers, and some symbols
• Number data is any numerical value that can be used in a mathematical calculation
• Date and time data are commonly recognized formats for date and time values
• Click the cell in which you want to enter the text
• Type the first line of text
• For each additional line of text, press the Alt+Enter keys (that is, hold down the Alt key as you press the
Enter key), and then type the text
• A pixel is a single point on a computer monitor or printout
• The default column width is 8.38 standardsized characters
• Row heights are expressed in points or pixels, where a point is 1?72 of an inch
• Autofitting eliminates any empty space by matching the column to the width of its longest cell entry or the row to the height of its tallest cell entry
• Drag the right border of the column heading left to decrease the column width or right to increase the column width
• Drag the bottom border of the row heading up to decrease the row height or down to increase the row height
• Double-click the right border of a column heading or the bottom border of a row heading to AutoFit the column or row to the cell contents (or select one or more column or rows, click the Home tab on the Ribbon, click the Format button in the Cells group, and then click AutoFit Column Width or AutoFit Row Height)
• Select one or more columns or rows
• Click the Home tab on the Ribbon, click the Format button in the Cells group, and then click Column Width or Row Height
• Enter the column width or row height you want, and then click the OK button
• Select the column(s) or row(s) where you want to insert the new column(s) or row(s); Excel will insert the same number of columns or rows as you select
• In the Cells group on the Home tab, click the Insert button (or right-click a column or row heading or selected column and row headings, and then click Insert on the shortcut menu)
Deleting and Clearing a Row or Column
• Clearing data from a worksheet removes the data but leaves the blank cells
• Deleting data from the worksheet removes both the data and the cells
• A group of cells is called a cell range or range
• An adjacent range is a single rectangular block of cells
• A nonadjacent range consists of two or more distinct adjacent ranges
• A range reference indicates the location and size of a cell range
To select an adjacent range:
• Click the cell in the upper-left corner of the adjacent range, drag the pointer to the cell in the lower-right corner of the adjacent range, and then release the mouse button
• Click the cell in the upper-left corner of the adjacent range, press the Shift key as you click the cell in the lower-right corner of the adjacent range, and then release the Shift key To select a nonadjacent range of cells:
• Select a cell or an adjacent range, press the Ctrl key as you select each additional cell or adjacent range, and then release the Ctrl key
To select all the cells in a worksheet:
• Click the Select All button located at the intersection of the row and column headings (or press the Ctrl+A keys)
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• Select the cell or range you want to move or copy
• Move the mouse pointer over the border of the selection until the pointer changes shape
• To move the range, click the border and drag the selection to a new location (or, to copy the range, hold down the Ctrl key and drag the selection to a new location)
• Select the cell or range you want to move or copy
• In the Clipboard group on the Home tab, click the Cut button or the Copy button (or right-click the selection, and then click Cut or Copy on the shortcut menu)
• Select the cell or upper-left cell of the range where you want to move or copy the content
• In the Clipboard group, click the Paste button (or right-click the selection, and then click Paste on the shortcut menu)
Inserting or Deleting a Cell Range
• Select a range that matches the range you want to insert or delete
• In the Cells group on the Home tab, click the Insert button or the Delete button
• Select the range that matches the range you want to insert or delete
• In the Cells group, click the Insert button arrow and then click the Insert Cells button or click the Delete button arrow and then click the Delete Cells command (or right-click the selected range, and then click Insert or Delete on the shortcut menu)
• Click the option button for the direction in which you want to shift the cells, columns, or rows
• Click the OK button
• To insert a new worksheet into the workbook, rightclick a sheet tab, click Insert on the shortcut menu, select a sheet type, and then click the OK button
• You can delete a worksheet from a workbook in two ways:
– You can right-click the sheet tab of the worksheet you want to delete, and then click Delete on the shortcut menu
– You can also click the Delete button arrow in the Cells group on the Home tab, and then click Delete Sheet
• To rename a worksheet, you double-click the sheet tab to select the sheet name, type a new name for the sheet, and then press the Enter key
• Sheet names cannot exceed 31 characters in length, including blank spaces
• The width of the sheet tab adjusts to the length of the name you enter
• You can change the placement of the worksheets in a workbook
• To reposition a worksheet, you click and drag the sheet tab to a new location relative to other worksheets in the workbook
• To copy a worksheet, just press the Ctrl key as you drag and drop the sheet tab
• To edit the cell contents, you can work in editing mode
• You can enter editing mode in several ways:
– double-clicking the cell
– selecting the cell and pressing the F2 key
– selecting the cell and clicking anywhere within the formula bar
• You can use the Find command to locate numbers and text in the workbook and the
Replace command to overwrite them
• The spelling checker verifies the words in the active worksheet against the program’s dictionary
• You can view a worksheet in three ways:
– Normal view simply shows the contents of the worksheet
– Page Layout view shows how the worksheet will appear on the page or pages sent to the printer
– Page Break Preview displays the location of the different page breaks within the worksheet
• In portrait orientation, the page is taller than it is wide
• In landscape orientation, the page is wider than it is tall
• By default, Excel displays pages in portrait orientation
• To change the page orientation:
– Click the Page Layout tab on the Ribbon
– In the Page Setup group, click the Orientation button, and then click Landscape
– The page orientation switches to landscape
• You can print the contents of your workbook by using the Print command on the Office Button
• The Print command provides three options:
– You can open the Print dialog box from which you can specify the printer settings, including which printer to use, which worksheets to include in the printout, and the number of copies to print
– You can perform a Quick Print using the print options currently set in the Print dialog box
– Finally, you can preview the workbook before you send it to the printer
Excel Shortcuts
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When you are first getting used to Excel you will probably be focused on just getting your task done rather than learning how to work more efficiently. However, when you are ready to learn about the Excel keyboard shortcuts this lesson will teach you the most important and useful Excel shortcuts currently available.
• The benefits of using a keyboard shortcut are twofold:
• It is quicker to keep your hand on the keyboard then shift from keyboard to mouse to keyboard
• You will experience less stress on your muscles if you shift your hands less
• We have divided the keyboard shortcuts into related areas. This way you can focus on learning a group of shortcuts at a time, rather than all at once!
• Shortcut Help: Combination keyboard shortcuts, those that have a plus (i.e. Ctrl + S), require that you hold the first key (Control) then press the second key (S) while still holding down the first key.
This small group of shortcuts is useful for opening, closing and saving your Excel workbooks.
• Ctrl+S: Save your Excel workbook
• Ctrl+O: Open an existing Excel workbook
• Ctrl+N: Create a new Excel workbook
These are common shortcuts you will use to edit your Excel workbook.
Our favorite shortcut in this list is, quite obviously, Ctrl+Z.
• Ctrl+C: Copy the current selection to the clipboard. After you copy something, you can paste it with the paste shortcut.
• Ctrl+V: Paste the current item from the clipboard.
• Ctrl+X: Cut the current selection and place it on the clipboard, which can be pasted. The difference between cut and copy is that cut will delete your selection, while copy will not.
• Ctrl+Z: Undo your last change. This is can be repeated to remove again and again to undo many changes.
• Ctrl+Y: Redo your last Undo. This only is available if you have just issued an Undo command.
• Backspace: Deletes the current cell and enters edit mode for that cell. This will only delete one cell and not a selection.
• Delete: Deletes the current selection. Use the delete key when you want to delete more than one cell at a time.
These shortcuts will help you move around your Excel workbooks and worksheets with great ease!
• Page Up: Move one page up in your worksheet
• Page Down: Move one page down in your worksheet. Note: The number of rows moved in both page up and page down depend on how many rows are currently displayed. The more rows you have displayed the greater amount the row jump will be when you do a page up/down.
• Ctrl+Home: Move to the beginning of your worksheet
• Ctrl+End: Move to the end of your worksheet
• Tab: Move right one column
• Shift+Tab: Move left one column
• Ctrl+Page Up: Go back one worksheet
• Ctrl+Page Down: Go forward one worksheet. Note: If you are not using multiple worksheets in your workbook you will probably not use this shortcut!
Excel Shortcuts: Formatting
These shortcuts will help you quickly format your data.
• Ctrl+B: Toggles bold on and off for your selection
• Ctrl+I: Toggles italic on and off for your selection
• Ctrl+U: Toggles underline on and off for your selection
• Ctrl+1: Opens up the Format Cell popup
These shortcuts allow you to active the various options on the menu bar without have to mouse-click them.
Note: These shortcuts use Alt as their combination key.
• Alt+F: Accesses the File menu
• Alt+E: Accesses the Edit menu
• Alt+V: Accesses the View menu
• Alt+I: Accesses the Insert menu
• Alt+T: Accesses the Tools menu
• Alt+D: Accesses the Data menu
• Alt+W: Accesses the Window menu
• Alt+H: Accesses the Help menu
After you have used one of these shortcuts you can use the arrow keys to navigate the menu choices and use the Enter key to select a choice.
These shortcuts help you to quickly select items in your Excel file in various ways.
• Shift+Spacebar: Select the current Row
• Ctrl+Spacebar: Select the current column
• Ctrl+A: Select All, will select everything on the current worksheet. This is most often used in conjunction with the copy shortcut.
And the two black sheep of the shortcut essentials:
• F1: Opens up the quick help feature
• Ctrl+P: Print your worksheet
Excel 2007 Formula
Excel 2007 Formula: A foundation to XP start writing a formula!
• A formula is an equation that performs operations on worksheet data. You can use an Excel 2007 formula to perform mathematical operations, such as addition and multiplication, or they can compare worksheet values, join text, averaging a student's test results, etc.
• Formulas can refer to other cells on the same worksheet, cells on other sheets in the same workbook, or cells on sheets in other workbooks. In addition, if you change the data in your spreadsheet, Excel will automatically recalculate the answer without you having to re-enter the formula.
• A basic formula format will start with an equals sign (=) followed by one or more operands, separated by one or more operators. Operands can be values, text, cell references, ranges, defined names, or function names. Operators are symbols used to represent the various arithmetic and comparison operations you can perform on the operands.
In Microsoft Excel 2007, operators are executed in this order:
To enter a formula
• Place the cursor in the cell where the formula will appear, i.e.E5.
• Enter an = sign. All Excel formulas start with the ‘equal’ sign.
• Enter the expression that will produce the result you want. This can consist of operands, values, variables, and symbols which represent mathematical procedures such as + or – to add and subtract, e.g. A5+C5.
• When the formula is complete, press Enter. The result of the formula will be calculated and displayed in the cell E5.
• You can see the formula in the Formula bar at the top of the screen by placing the cell pointer on the cell E5.
• If there is an error in a formula, an error message is displayed which will begin with a # sign.
To know the formula error messages
• When writing formulas it is easy to make a mistake. Here are some common mistakes:
• Place the cursor in the cell where the formula will appear.
• Enter the formula up to the point of the cell or range reference,
e.g. to enter the formula =E2+E5, only enter the = sign.
• Using the arrow keys, move the cell pointer to the first cell reference, in this case E2. The formula will track your progress and enter the current address into the formula.
• Enter the operand, + sign.
• Using the arrow keys, move the cell pointer to the second cell reference, in this case E5. If you are calculating a range of cells, hold down the Shift key while using the arrow keys to move to the intended cells.
• Press Enter to complete the formula when you have reached the cell you require.
• A forumla is nothing more than an equation that you write up. In Excel a typical formula might contain cells, constants, and even functions. Here is an example Excel formula that we have labeled for your understanding.
=B3 * 5 / SUM(B4:B7)
• cell(s): B3 and the range of cells from B4:B7
• constant(s): 5
• function(s): SUM()
This first formula will be as simple as they come and will teach you the basic form of an Excel formula. Create a new spreadsheet and then follow these steps:
• Select cell A1
• Type the following basic arithmetic formula into cell A1: =1+1
• Press Enter and notice how cell A1 changes from your formula to the result!
• This may seem simple, but there are a some very important things you should get out of this example. When you start off a cell entry with the equal sign "=" you are telling Excel that you want it to evaluate the following formula.
• In our case we had a simple "1+1" we wanted Excel to solve for us. You can do this for addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and any other operation you can think of.
Remember, if you do not start your entry with the equal sign, then Excel will not evaluate the cell!
The most powerful aspect of Excel is not the simple calculator abilities we describes in our first formula example, but rather the ability to take values from cells to be used in your formulas.
• Let's set up a basic sales spreadsheet to help explain this topic.
• In cells A1-D4 enter the following information:
• Notice: that cell D2 and D3 are blank, but should contain the amount of money from selling 150 candy items and 3 vegetables. By referencing the Quantity and Price cells we will be able to do this! Let's begin with Candy.
• Note:It is very important to follow these steps exactly without interruptions! Select cell D2, candy's "revenue", and type the equal sign "=" to begin your formula.
• Left-click on cell B2, Candy's Quantity and notice your formula is now "=B2"
• We want to multiply Quanity(B2) by Price(B3) so enter an asterisk (*)
• Now left-click on Candy's Price (C2)to complete your formula!
• If your formula looks like ours then press Enter, otherwise you can manually enter the formula "=B2*C2". However, we really think it is easier and preferred to click on cells to reference them, instead of entering that information manually.
• After you pressed Enter your Candy Revenue cell should be functioning properly and contain the value 75.
• Using your newly gained knowledge please complete Vegetable's Revenue by repeating steps 2-7 for Vegetable
• Your spreadsheet should now look like this:
• Cheatsheet: If you are having trouble creating the formula for Vegetable's Revenue it is "=B3*C3"
Now that we have created separate revenues for both Candy and Vegetable it would be nice to somehow combine these two values to get the Total Revenue. Although both Vegetable Revenue and Candy Revenue contain formulas, we can still use these cells as we have been doing and add them together to get our total.
• Select cell D5 (directly below "Total")
• Type the equal sign "="
• Left-click cell D2
• Type the plus sign "+"
• Left-click cell D3. Cell D5 should now contain this formula "=D2+D3":
• Press Enter to complete your Total Revenue!
Excel 2007 Functions are build-in, special commands that incorporated into the formulas to perform mathematical calculations. It can be used to make complex operations simple. Excel 2007 contains a build-in list of worksheet functions, which are categorised to make it easy to search for the ones you need.
• Functions are special commands used in formulas to perform mathematical processes.
• Excel has over 300 built-in functions divided into various function categories, including:
– Financial
– Logical
– Text
– Date & Time
– Lookup & Reference
– Math & Trigonometry
– Information
– Database
– Statistical
– Engineering
– Cube
• Here are some commonly used functions:
AVERAGE: Used to determine the average value of the selected cells contents.
COLUMNS: Used to return the number of columns within a reference.
COUNT: Used to count how many numbers are in the list.
MAX: Used to return the maximum number from a list.
MIN: Used to return the minimum number from a list. ROUND: Used to round off numbers to a specified number of decimal points.
SUM: Used to add the contents of selected cells.
To display all the available functions
• Open a blank Excel workbookClick on the Formulas tab and within the Function Library group click on the Insert Function icon.
• From the Insert Function dialog box displayed, under Or select a category: section, select a particular category function, the related functions will displayed.
To enter functions directly into the worksheet XP cell
• Select the cell into which the formula will be entered.
• Insert an equal (=) sign to begin the formula. The formula toolbar buttons will appear.
• Enter the name of the function [e.g. SUM], followed by an opening parenthesis [(], any arguments required for the function [e.g. E2:E5], and closing parenthesis[)].
• Press Enter. If there are no errors in the formula, the result of the function will be entered in the cell. If you activate the cell again, the function will be displayed in the formula bar.
• The functions can be accessed through the AutoSum icon on the Standard toolbar.
• The functions included in the AutoSum dropdown menu will insert the function and predict the arguments.
• For example, if the active cell is positioned at the bottom of the list of values, AutoSum will display a sum function with the list of the arguments.
• Sum -- add the contents of the list of arguments.
• Average -- determine the average value of the list of arguments.
• Count -- count the number of values in the list of arguments.
• Max -- return the maximum number in the list of arguments.
• Min -- return the minimum number in the list of arguments
• Enter the values as shown below from B1 to B5 and select the cell B6 which the formula will be entered.
• From the Insert Function dialog box displayed, under Or select a category: section, select a particular category function, the related functions will displayed.
• Click the down arrow beside the AutoSum icon on the Standard toolbar and choose Average from the drop-down menu.
• If the predicted range is correct, press the Enter key. If it is incorrect, select (click and drag) the range you want with the mouse and press theEnter key.
• The result will show in cell B6. You can use the same method to do other functions such as SUM, Max, etc.
Note: Excel formula and function is one of the most powerful feature in Microsoft Excel.
• You can view the formulas in a workbook by switching to formula view, a view of the workbook contents that displays formulas instead of the resulting values
• To change the worksheet to formula view, press the Ctrl+` keys
• Scaling a printout reduces the width and the height of the printout to fit the number of
pages you specify by shrinking the text size as needed
Formulas
Formulas