Excel Manual
to Accompany
James T. McClave P. George Benson and Terry Sincich's
Statistics for Business and Economics
Tenth Edition
Mark Dummeldinger
University of South Florida
Table of Contents
Primer Excel Basics Needed for Statistical Analysis of Data
P.1.3 What May be Skipped 2
P.1.4 More Detailed Information on Excel 2
P.2 What You Need to Know to Begin Using Excel 2
P.2.1 Using the Mouse 2
P.2.2.1 Starting and Exiting PHStat 3
P.2.2.2 Starting and Exiting Excel 3
P.2.3 Layout of Worksheets and Worksheets 4
P.2.4 Menus, Toolbars and Dialog Boxes 7
P.2.5 Manipulating Windows 9
P.3 Ways to Get Help 10
P.3.1 Help on the Main Menu 10
P.4 Opening and Saving Documents 12
P.4.1 Opening a Brand New Spreadsheet 12
P.4.2 Opening a File you have Already Created 12
P.5 Entering Information 13
P.5.1 Activating a Cell or Range of Cells 13
P.5.2 Types of Information 14
P.5.3 Changing Information 14
P.5.4 Moving and Copying Information 15
P.6 Formatting Numbers 16
P.6.1 Aligning Information 17
P.6.2 Formatting a Range 17
P.6.3 Inserting or Deleting Rows and Columns 17
P.6.4 Filling Adjacent Cells 18
P.6.5 Series 19
P.6.6 Sorting 19
P.7 Saving and Retrieving Information 21
P.7.1 Naming Workbooks 21
P.8 Printing 22
P.8.1 Page Setup 22
P.8.2 Page 22
P.8.3 Margins 23
P.8.4 Header/Footer 23 P.8.5 Sheet 25
iii
ivContents
P.8.6 Enhancing Output 25
P.8.7 Inserting and Removing Page Breaks 25
P.8.8 Preview and Print 26
P.9 Using Formulas and Functions 27
P.9.1 Operators 27
P.9.2 Order of Operators 27
P.9.3 Writing Equations 28
P.10 Entering Formulas 30
P.10.1 Relative References 31
P.10.2 Absolute References 32
Chapter 1 Statistics, Data, and Statistical Thinking 34
1.1 Introduction 34
Chapter 2 Methods for Describing Sets of Data 35
2.1 Introduction 35
2.2 Graphical Techniques in Excel 36
2.2.1 Bar Graphs and Histograms 36
2.2.2 Pie Charts 43
2.2.3 Scatter Plots 46
2.2.4 StemandLeaf Displays 50
2.2.5 Box Plots 51
2.3 Numerical Techniques in Excel 52
2.3.1 Measures of Center 52
2.3.2 Measures of Spread 55
2.3.3 Measures of Relative Standing 56
Technology Lab 60
Chapter 3 Probability 64
3.1 Introduction 64
3.2 Probabilities in a 2×2 Table 64
3.3 Random Sampling 67
Chapter 4 Random Variables and Probability Distributions 70
4.1 Introduction 70
4.2 Calculating Binomial Probabilities 70
4.3 Calculating Poisson Probabilities 73
4.4 Calculating Normal Probabilities 75
4.5 Assessing the Normality of a Data Set 78
4.6 Calculating Probabilities Using the Sampling Distribution of x 80
Technology Lab 82
Contents v
Chapter 5  Inferences Based on Single Sample  
Estimation with Confidence Intervals 85  
5.1 Introduction 85  
5.2 Estimation of a Population Mean – Sigma Unknown 85  
5.3 Estimation of a Population Proportion 90  
5.4 Determining the Sample Size 92  
5.4.1 Determining the Sample Size for Means 93  
5.4.2 Determining the Sample Size for Proportions 94  
Technology Lab 96  
Chapter 6  Inferences Based on a Single Sample: Tests of Hypothesis 98 
6.1 Introduction 98 6.2 Tests of Hypothesis of a Population Mean – Sigma Unknown 98 6.3 Tests of Hypothesis of a Population Proportion 101 Technology Lab 104  
Chapter 7  Inferences Based on Two Samples: Confidence Intervals and 
Tests of Hypothesis 106  
7.1 Introduction 106  
7.2 Tests for Differences in Two Means 106  
7.3 Tests for Differences in Two Proportions 109  
7.4 Tests for Differences in Two Variances 112  
Technology Lab 115  
Chapter 8  Design of Experiments and Analysis of Variance 119 
8.1 Introduction 119  
8.2 The Completely Randomized Design 119  
8.3 The Factorial Design 122  
Technology Lab 125  
Chapter 9  Categorical Data Analysis 127 
9.1 Introduction 127  
9.2 Testing Categorical Probabilities: TwoWay Table 127  
Technology Lab 131  
Chapter 10  Simple Linear Regression 133 
10.1 Introduction 133  
10.2 The Coefficient of Correlation 133  
10.3 The Coefficient of Determination and Regression Output 135  
10.4 Estimating and Predicting with a Simple Linear Model 138  
Technology Lab 141  
Chapter 11  Multiple Regression and Model Building 143 
11.1 Introduction 143  
11.2 Multiple Regression Model Building 143  
11.3 Comparing Two Regression Models 152  
11.4 Stepwise Regression 153  
11.5 Residual Analysis 154  
Technology Lab 163 
viContents
Chapter 12  Methods of Quality Improvement 166 
12.1 Introduction 166  
12.2 Constructing RCharts and x Charts 166  
12.3 Constructing pcharts 169  
Technology Lab 173  
Chapter 13  Time Series: Descriptive Analyses, Models, and Forecasting 176 
13.1 Introduction 176  
13.2 Descriptive Analyses: Index Numbers 177  
13.3 Exponential Smoothing 183  
13.4 Using Regression to Model Time Series Data 185  
Chapter 14  Nonparametric Statistics 187 
14.1 Introduction 187  
14.2 The WilcoxonRank Sum Test for Independent Samples 187  
14.3 The KruskalWallis HTest for the Completely  
Randomized Design 188  
Technology Lab 190 
Primer
Excel Basics Needed for Statistical Analysis of Data
P.1 Introduction and Overview
This manual is designed for use with McClave, Benson, and Sincich Statistics for Business and Economics, 10^{th} Edition. It is not intended to take the place of your Excel user’s manual, however it will introduce the Excel novice to the software and provide the basic tools necessary to analyze statistical data using Excel. To accomplish this goal, we follow a fourpart process. First, we introduce the statistical procedures available in Excel. Next, we illustrate these procedures by teaching you how to perform the Excel commands required to produce the output from selected examples in Statistics for Business and Economics 10/e. Both the steps taken and output generated are provided in this manual to teach you the Excel steps to be followed. Third, we have provided an Excel Lab where the student is given Excel workbooks to use in answering stepbystep questions. The final part of our process is to provide you with Excel data sets that may be used to complete homework exercises in the McClave/Benson/Sincich text. Our hope is that this “introducelearnpractice” format will enable you to finish the course with a firm understanding of how Excel can be used to analyze statistical data.
We believe that the Excel portion of a statistics course should serve strictly to enhance the statistics that is being taught. We have tried to keep this philosophy in mind when writing this manual. We have attempted to provide an easytouse format that will allow you to use Excel to calculate the statistics you learn in class. If we have been successful, you will view Excel as a valuable tool for the statistician. Used correctly, Excel allows the statistician to spend more time using, and less time calculating, the kind of information that you will explore in your statistics course.
P1.1 Versions of Excel
This manual principally uses the 2002 version of Excel for MS Office XP Pro suite of software available from Microsoft. Many different versions of Excel exist, however all of the versions function in essentially the same way. You will notice slight differences in how the screens look and in the names of some commands. In this manual, we will primarily use the statistics procedures available in the PHStat addin currently available from Prentice Hall for Excel. When possible, we have supplemented these procedures with different Functions and techniques available within the Excel program. Our goal throughout this manual is to provide the user with the easiest method of generating the desired output.
P.1.2 Versions of Windows
The copies of screens shown in this book are taken from a PC using Windows XP. They will appear slightly different if using another operating system or a Macintosh computer. After you are operating comfortably within Excel, these differences should be minor. There will, however, be slight differences between Macs and PCs in the keys used for commands.
1
If you have used spreadsheets before, you can probably omit much of the first chapter. Other programs, such as Lotus 123 and Quattro, use slightly different terminology when describing the spreadsheets. The concepts, however, are essentially the same although the terms and/or procedures may differ slightly.
• For those of you who are looking for commands for a specific procedure or example from Statistics for Business and Economics, 10/e you will find that each of the chapters may be used independently.
A glance at the bookshelves in the computer section of most bookstores will reveal a number of books that deal with Excel in all its various versions. Few deal with Excel as a way to perform statistical analyses. Use care when selecting these resources to help with statistical analyses of data.
Mice come in several forms. The majority are provided with new computers and roll on the desktop or pad. A small ball on the bottom, when rolled, causes the pointer on the screen (called the screen pointer) to move in a corresponding way. Another version (called a trackball) places a larger ball in a framework that allows you to roll the ball with your fingers. Finally, there are other forms that have small screens that you move your fingers across as you would move the mouse. The pressure of your finger moving across the screen causes a screen pointer to move in synchrony with your movements.
All devices have at least one, and most likely two or more, buttons that you can click or hold down, sometimes while also moving the ball. There are four basic actions you will need to use in operating the mouse:
• Point You point to objects on the screen by sliding the mouse on the deskpad or rolling the trackball. The screen pointer will track the movements made on your desk. The shape of the screen pointer will change, most often being an outline arrow or the outline of a plus sign when using Excel, but changing with the task to be done.
• Click “Click” means to press and release the left mouse button (called a leftclick). If you are pointing at an executable command, this action will cause it to take place. If you point to any cell on the spreadsheet and click, that cell becomes the active cell and is ready to receive data. Sometimes you may be asked to press and release the right mouse button (called a rightclick), which is commonly used to place a shortcut menu on the screen. The above assumes you are using the settings for the mouse provided by the manufacturer with your right hand. If you are lefthanded or want to reverse the way the buttons function, this can be done. Click on the Help icon above the Start button on the Windows 95 screen and look for mouse, buttons, reversing in the Index.
• Doubleclick “Doubleclick” means to press and release the left mouse button twice rapidly. If you fail to press rapidly enough, it is interpreted as one click. Often this process replaces the twostep sequence of selecting a command and then clicking on OK to execute that command.
• Drag. Objects on the screen are moved by dragging. To drag, place the mouse pointer on the item you want to move, click and hold the left mouse button  do NOT release it. While you hold the mouse button down, slide the mouse to move the screen pointer and the item to the location you want. Then release the mouse button.
To start the program using either a Windowsbased version:
Click on Start in the lower left of the screen. Move the mouse to Programs and then continue moving through menus until you find the PHStat icon to click and begin. Click on Enable Macros and Continue to open the PHStat program. You are now ready to begin.
To end the program using either Windowsbased version:
Click in the upper X (the closebutton) that you find in the upper right corner of the screen. (If two sets of boxes are showing, the lower set applies to the worksheet (spreadsheet) you have showing while the upper one is for the application or program itself (i.e., PHStat). IF you have edited (changed) any of the information in the workbook, you will be prompted to save the information before closing the program. In many computer labs, you will be asked to save all of your data on a diskette. We will describe this procedure later.
To start the program using either Windowsbased version:
Click on Start in the lower left of the screen. Move the mouse to Programs and then continue moving through menus until you find the MicrosoftExcel icon to click and begin.
If you have an Office Suite of programs, you may have to find the folder containing the suite, open it, and doubleclick on the icon of the Excel program you find there.
You may want to go through the Quick Preview online tutorial if you are unfamiliar with spreadsheets and need a quick overview. This is often found in the Excel folder.
To exit the program using either Windowsbased version:
Click in the upper X (the close button) that you find in the upper right corner of the screen. (If two sets of boxes are showing, the lower set applies to the worksheet (spreadsheet) you have showing while the upper one is for the application or program itself, (i.e., Excel)). If you have edited (changed) any of the information in the workbook, you will be prompted to save the information before closing the program. In many computer labs, you may be asked to save all of your data on a diskette. We will describe this procedure later.
The above figure shows what is on the screen when PHStat for Excel is opened. It may be slightly different from what you have on your screen. The list that follows briefly describes each of the items on the figure above, starting at the top.
• Program Title Bar This is most likely at the very top of the screen, with the default title being Microsoft Excel  Book 1. It indicates the name of the application and the fact that you are in what is called Book 1, the name given to a newly opened spreadsheet. Each book initially consists of three worksheets (this can be changed) which are stored together as a unit called a book. When you save your work, all of the sheets in this book will be saved together as one file.
• Program Icons Known as sizing buttons, these are at the very right on the Program Title Bar, just as on the screen shown above. There are three program icons. Each is described below.
• The minimize button shrinks the program which is then represented as a button on the taskbar at the bottom of the screen. This is part of Windows 95, which inactivates, but does not close, programs and places their icon at the bottom of the screen so they can be immediately reactivated.
• The maximize button switches (toggles) between the fullscreen and window views.
• The close button, which closes the Excel application. You will be asked if you want to save your work, if there is any, before the application is closed.
• Main menu bar. Commands are grouped into categories such as File, Edit, View, etc. Clicking on one of these will drop down the commands in that group. Those that are useful for our purposes will be discussed later.
• Workbook Icons. These are the same as the program icons described above, except that they apply to the specific workbook being used rather than to the program.
• Standard Toolbar. This is a ribbon of icons that are designed to ease your access to commands. Some are not as obvious as one might wish, but all you need to do to find out what the button does is to point at it with your mouse pointer and pause. Its name is then displayed. For example, the first icon, labeled New, resembles a sheet of paper and will create a new workbook if it is clicked. The second will open a file, etc. You can already see how there are a number of ways to execute the same command. Near the extreme right of the toolbar we have the Tip Wizard (see the question mark) which will give us information about how to do something more effectively. Click on it and you will see a general tip inserted in a space between the Formatting Toolbar and the Formula Bar. Click again to remove it. Next to Tip Wizard is another form of Help, the Help Tool. If you click on that button, the screen pointer changes to a question mark. Move it to the part of the screen you need to know more about, click the mouse, and it will give you a list of topics to explain the specific question you have. Try it by clicking on it and then moving to the letters at the top of each column. You will be given a list of Parts of the Microsoft Excel Screen that you can choose from for a brief explanation of their purpose. Click on Column Heading and you will be given a brief explanation and more options, such as adjusting column width, hiding a row or column, etc.
• Formatting Toolbar. Commands that change the appearance of your text are found here. First, you have the default font listed, Arial in most cases. If you wish to use a different font you need only click on the down arrow next to the font box to see which ones are available. To change the default font for the whole spreadsheet, use Help and search for the term fonts. Click on the second option to obtain a How To box with directions for changing the default startup workbook or the standard font.
The size of the font (10) is displayed in the next window with an arrow for changing it.
Following this are buttons for bold, italic, and underline, leftalignment, centeralignment, and centering across columns. The next five icons control the form of currency, percentage, use of commas in numbers, and the number of decimals displayed. To place any of a variety of borders around a cell or cells, use the next icon. The last two deal with colors, which we will not cover.
• Formula Bar. The first window shows the address of the active cell in the worksheet that is displayed. Initially it is A1, so this is the address displayed. Move to a different cell and click on it to make it the active cell. Now that cell’s address is displayed.
This first box on the formula bar is also called the Name Box. To learn how to use it, click on Help on the Main Menu Bar, then Search for Help on …, and type in name box followed by clicking on Display. You will have an explanation of how to name a cell, formula, or range of cells.
Notice what happens to the formula Bar when we type some numbers in cell A1. Three more buttons appear:
• The red X is clicked when we want to “destroy” or delete the information we have typed in the active cell. That information is also displayed in the Formula Bar and will be removed from both sites is we click on the X.
• The green check mark, when clicked, indicates that the data as entered are acceptable. The data will remain in the cell, but the three buttons disappear indicating that the cell is not being edited.
• Finally, the f_{X} is an icon to turn on the Function Wizard, a set of over 300 functions in categories such as Financial, Math & Trig, Statistical, etc. We will use the statistical functions quite often, and discuss the use of this tool throughout the chapters.
• Worksheet Area. Finally, we have the worksheet, which consists of 16,777,216 cells with columns labeled as letters and rows as numbers. There are 256 columns and 65,536 rows. Press CTRL+DOWN ARROW (at the same time) to move to the last row and CTRL+RIGHT ARROW to move the last column. Each cell is identified by the combination of its column letter and row number as is displayed in the Name Box.
• Scroll Bars are found at the right and at the bottom of the worksheet. There are two small arrows, which look like a triangle laid on its side at either end of each scrollbar that, when clicked with the mouse, will move the screen up, down, right, or left one line for each press. Some users call the box within the scroll bar an elevator. You can grab the box or elevator and drag it. The screen will move a distance that corresponds to the amount you move the box. Finally, if you click in the shaded area between the box and the top or bottom of the scroll bar, the screen will move one whole screen in the direction you click. Thus, you can move a line at a time, a screen at a time, or from the top to the bottom of the screen. If you drag the elevator to the bottom, you will not move to 16,384 but only down about two screens. If you had data that extended to row 16,384, then the elevator would move to that location. Also, if you hold down the shift key while dragging the box, you can move to the end of the row or column.
• Worksheet Tabs. These are at the lower left of the screen and are labeled as Sheet 1, Sheet 2, etc. The default setting provides three of these tabs, which you can move through by clicking the arrows to the left of the name. Try it. Two arrows will move the active sheet to the left: one moves a sheet at a time and the other will move to the leftmost sheet. The same applies to the right arrows. All three of these worksheets are stored together as one unit, called a Book.
The Windows icon is at the very top of the screen to the left of Microsoft Excel. Use this to restore, minimize, close, etc.
The Main Menu Bar is at the top of the Excel screen. Click on File and you will have a set of commands drops down, beginning with New and ending with Exit. Most of these deal with operations on files. Notice that you can use combinations of keys to execute many of these commands. Key combinations are shown after the name. If you want to open a new file, press CTRL+N and you will have a new blank worksheet opened. CTRL+V will paste material from the Clipboard into the location you specify with the active cell.
Click somewhere on the blank spreadsheet and the dropdown commands will disappear. Now move the mouse pointer to the icons below the words that make up the Main Menu. These icons are on the Workbook Icon Bar. Hold the pointer to the second icon from the left for a moment and you will see the work Open appear. Click on that icon and you will open a new worksheet.
Rather than reading our explanation of each command, here is how you can find out what each does: Click on Help command on the Main Menu Bar. Move the mouse pointer to the uparrow question mark (What’s This?) in this menu. This is called the Shortcut Help Icon or Help Tool. Click on it.
Now the mouse pointer changes to a similar icon on the screen (the arrow is now in outline form). Move the pointer to Edit on the Main Menu Bar. Click so that you drop down the set of commands. Now click on Copy. Microsoft Excel Help now displays this box:
The Status Bar is at the bottom of the Excel screen. (At the very bottom of the complete screen is the Windows Taskbar). The Status Bar indicates what is happening. Most of the time, when nothing special is being done, it simply says Ready at the left of the screen. When you are editing a cell (changing information in it) then the word Edit will be displayed. Enter a number in cell A1, say 12359. The number is displayed in A1 and also in the Formula Bar. The three icons described above also disappear. If we want to change the 5 to a 6, move the pointer to the numbers in the formula bar. Now the pointer changes to an Ibeam, which you can place just to the right of the 5, before the 9. Do this by clicking in that location. The three icons reappear because you have started to edit the contents of the cell. The word Edit is displayed in the Status Bar. Now press the backspace key and the 5 disappears. Enter a 6 and then press the Enter key or click on the check mark to accept the change.
Also shown at the right of the Status Bar is whether the Number Lock is turned on so you can use the keypad to enter numbers. Press the Num Lock key on the keyboard to turn it on or off. If the Scroll Lock is on or the Caps Lock keys are on this will also be shown here.
Dialog Boxes usually require that you choose from a number of alternatives. For example, in the Save As dialog box shown below, you first must choose the place to save the file. Here we have the A: drive selected as the location. If you click on the arrow to the right, the set of possible locations will be displayed, including the C: drive and any servers that are available. You can then click on your choice to activate it and, if there are currently files of the same type in that location, they will be displayed. Hold the pointer to the icons to the right of the window for their name. A description of their function can be found in the Help file. File name is the place where you type the name you wish to use for the file. The default of Book 2 is shown here. The type of file can be selected in the window below. In most cases, the default shown here is what you will use. Note the numerous options for the format in which a file can be saved when you click on the arrow by the window.
We will discuss moving from one window to another, using the sizing buttons, and changing the size of windows using the mouse pointer.
The name Windows aptly describes the major feature of computers today. Excel is described as working within Windows. With windows, the user has the ability to have a number of programs or applications operating at the same time and displayed on the screen at the same time. You also have this opportunity within Excel, in that you can move from sheet to sheet within a workbook as well as changing to another workbook. All windows, as all sheets, are readily available, but only one is active and ready for use at a time. You may also need to add more sheets, which can be done by using the Insert  Worksheet command.
Sizing Buttons were described previously. In both the Excel program and in the Windows program these are displayed at the upper right. The Minimize Button reduces the spreadsheet to a small rectangle and places it near the bottom of the screen. When a spreadsheet has been minimized, a new icon appears, the Restore button. When click on, it will restore the spreadsheet to the size and location it had before being minimized. The Maximize Button enlarges the spreadsheet to fill all available space on the Screen. When you have minimized a spreadsheet (or a program in Windows) you have not closed or quit the program. It is still ready to go, but waiting in the wings, so to speak. Finally the Close Button resembles the X seen in the Formula Bar when editing data. This commands the program to close the book you are working on. You are then asked if you want to save changes you have made. If you say yes, then you are asked for the name to use in saving the workbook and location for it. Try it. When you have closed a file (Book in this case) you haven’t stopped Excel from operating. The toolbars are still there but the Menu Bar now only has File and Help available. It is expected that you will create a new file or open an existing file.
The Help command is the rightmost command on the Main Menu Bar. Click on it and you will see a menu providing many options. Click on Microsoft Excel Help. Within this menu, there are several methods of getting the help that is needed. The choices are to get help using Contents, Answer Wizard, and Index. These options may differ slightly with the version of Excel you are using. Contents presents broad categories which are broken down into finer sections. Answer Wizard allows the user to type in a question and allow Excel to determine help topics that might be helpful. Index presents the topics as you would find them listed in the index at the back of a book. Within each of these you always have the option of moving from one to the other using commands near the top of the screen.
P.3: Ways to Get Help 11
If you started Excel by clicking the icon, the screen opened with a blank spreadsheet. The title at the top indicates it is called Book 1 and the tabs across the bottom are labeled Sheet 1, Sheet 2, etc. Initially there are three sheets available. All sheets together are stored in one unit, called a book. You might, for example, choose to keep all homework assignments for one class in one unit, now called Book 1, but renamed by you as Stats 1 HW. You could then create other books that contain your personal budget, your records as the treasurer of an organization, and so on.
When you enter information into the worksheet, it is stored in the active memory of the computer, and will disappear is power is lost, whether by an accident that deprives you of electrical power or by turning off the machine without saving your work.
It is wise to save your work often, especially if you are working on a complex project that requires many hours of data entry or processing. Use the automatic save feature. Find directions for using it in saving documents, protecting work, in the list of Help topics!
If you click on that X in the upper right of the Excel window, indicating that you want to quit, the program will ask you if you want to save the file you have created. If you have already saved it, and therefore have named it, Excel will save it using the same name unless you use the Save As … command, which is used to change the name or location for saving.
If you want to continue working on a file that you previously created, you can just doubleclick on the icon that represents that file. The program will automatically open Excel when you open a file created by Excel. Sometimes this causes a problem if you create a file in one version of Excel and want to open it using a computer that only contains another version. Files are often incompatible with earlier versions and cannot be opened by an earlier version. One solution is to use Save As… and save the file you created in the newer version in the format that can be used by the older version.
P.5: Entering Information 13
In the previous chapter we described the different parts of the screen ? the Main Menu Bar, the Program Title Bar, program icons, the Standard Toolbar, the Formatting Toolbar, worksheet tables, Status Bar, and Scroll Bars. We also shoed the various shapes that the mouse pointer can take. Now we are ready to enter, save, edit, retrieve, and perform other data manipulations.
• Addresses Each cell is identified by a combination of a letter and a number to locate it in the spreadsheet. Letters for each column are shown across the top of the worksheet and begin to repeat with two letter combinations after Z is reached. This continues until the final column is reached, which is the 256th column, labeled IV. Rows continue numerically until the last row, 16,384, is reached.
When the spreadsheet is initially opened, Cell A1 is automatically the active cell. It has a dark outline around it, which indicates that whatever you type will be entered into that cell. Note that the address A1 is displayed in the Name Box, which is to the left of the Formula Bar. Move to another cell, click, and note the change in the Name Box.
Often we need to refer to more than one cell at a time. A group of cells is called a Range. Click on cell B4, hold the mouse button down and drag down to B8. Release the button. The screen is now darkened (highlighted) in the range of cells, except for the top cell, B4. To indicate the address of a range of cells, we separate the addresses of the upper left and lower right cells with a colon. Here we have a range identified as B4:B8, although the Name Box only indicates the address of the top cell.
To activate cells in many rows and columns (i.e., a range) place the cursor in the upper left cell and drag to the lower right. Now all of the cells in that range will appear shaded. You can click and drag in the opposite direction if you wish. This is handier if you tend to overshoot your target and continue on past where you want to end, as many of us do. Another way to activate a range of cells is to click in the upper left cell, move to the lower right cell using the scroll bars or arrows, and then press the SHIFT key and click on the lower right cell (SHIFT + CLICK ON CELL) at the same time. Now all cells between these two points are shaded.
There are three types of information that you can enter into a cell:
1. Text. This is the term used by Excel developers. Other spreadsheet programs may call the alphabetic characters typed in a cell “labels.
2. Numbers. Most often you will enter numerical data.
3. Formulas. These cause new information generated from operations performed on text and numbers that are entered in cells.
To change information in a cell, you have to consider which of two situations exist:
• If you have not yet “accepted” the information by clicking the green check mark (or pressing enter, or using arrow keys, or …) then you can simply use the backspace or delete keys to remove entries. Insert the Ibeam at the point where you want to change something and use the backspace key to remove characters to its left and the delete key to remove them at its right.
• If you are typing information into a cell and decide you want to start over, click on the red X and everything will be deleted.
• If you just want to delete everything in the active cell or range of cells, press the delete button.
• If you have already entered and accepted data in a cell, but now want to go back and edit it but not erase all of it, activate the cell and then insert the Ibeam in the editing window where you want to make the changes.
As a practice exercise for changing information, try going through the following steps:
• In cell A1 type 12346. Press Enter, which moves you to A2.
• Assume you really wanted to enter 123456.
• Return to A1 by using the arrow key or mouse.
• Move the mouse pointer so the Ibeam is between 4 and 6 in the editing bar. Click once.
• Note that the three editing keys are now shown to the left of 12346.
• Type 5, which will be inserted between 4 and 6
P.5: Entering Information 15
A basic principle used in many programs is that you mark or indicate which material will have something done to it by first marking it and then execute the command that does something to the highlighted material. We will see this principle operate in several other places in the program. When we want to move information we can do it so that it is removed from one location and placed in another. This is a cut. If we want to make a copy of the material so that it is in the original location as well as in other locations we make a copy. Help for each of these procedures is obtained by searching the Help menu using the words cutting or copying.
To copy the entry in cell A1 (123456) to cell B1 we first mark the cell by clicking on it. Move the mouse pointer to the icon for copy or use Edit  Copy. The outline around the cell will become like the lights on a marquee; it will alternately darken and lighten. It is ready to be copied. Click the cell where you want the copy, say A2. Use the Edit  Paste commands or the icon for paste to place a copy there. Copy operates like a rubber stamp; we have a copy stored in the Clipboard and can continue to place copies anywhere we wish. Activate another cell, say C3 and paste another copy there.
Cutting is done in a similar fashion, except that the cell is empty after you cut the data from it. Click on any cell with content, say A1, and then click on the cut icon in the standard toolbar, which is a pair of scissors. The cell will be outlined, as it was when you used copy. Activate another cell and click on the icon for pasting, the same one used before.
If you cut or copy a group of cells, i.e., a range, the principle is the same. Instead of activating one cell, you click and drag over the cells so that a range of cells is now marked. Pasting is the same, except that the upper left cell of the group is the one whose location you specify as the target for the cut or copy.
Moving material between worksheets is accomplished the same way. You mark, indicate the cut or copy, move to the new sheet and the location on that sheet, and then paste.
•Dragging and dropping. If you want to cut or copy a range of cells on the same sheet, a shortcut to use is called drag and drop. Mark the cells, move the cursor to an edge, where it will become an outline arrow, hold down the mouse and drag to the new location. That is for cutting. To copy, hold down the CTRL key at the same time. If you attempt to drag and drop material onto a spot that currently has data in it you will get a message that asks if you want to do this, because it will remove the old material. If you have mistakenly done this, you can fall back on the Undo Drag and Drop command that you will find in the Edit menu. For more information, look up drag and drop in the help menu.
Start with a clean spreadsheet. You can clear everything from a sheet by marking the whole sheet (Press CTRL+A) and then pressing the Delete key. Or, you can simply move to another sheet by clicking on a tab at the bottom of the screen. Enter these numbers into A1 through A6 and then copy them into column B, C, D, and E.
• Currency Click on the B at the top of the second column to mark it. On the formatting bar you will find a $. Click on it. The initial column width is set at 8.43. With this width, column B looks like the one shown above; all but the last two figures are replaced by ###. When you see this, it indicates that the numbers are too long to fit in that width. We can readjust the column width by doubleclicking between the B and C at the top of the column. To show how this will change the appearance, we will activate column C, click on the $ icon and then doubleclick on the vertical separation between C and D to widen it an appropriate amount. The figure shows what results.
• Currency variations. If you wish to change to the format, which has no decimal, click on Format  Cells. The dialog box that results indicates the options regarding the number of decimals and the presence or absence of the $. In column D we used this feature to eliminate the cents.
• Percent and comma These options are to the right of the Currency option. Try them and note the changes. A number like 567 becomes 56700%. Column E uses the percentage option.
• Changing the decimal The two icons to the right of the icon for inserting a comma allow you to increase or decrease the number of places displayed to the right of the decimal. Try these on data you have marked.
P.6: Formatting Numbers 17
Start with a clearly unaligned set of data, such as the following:
Notice what happens when you enter the last row. It displays 0.123457. The six is missing. The program has been set to display digits to six places to the right of the decimal, if there is space. It rounds off any values that exceed that size. Enter .00001234567. The rounded value of 0.001235 is displayed, but the unrounded number is shown in the edit window. Moving on to .00001234567 you will see the value displayed as 1.23E05, the exponential form of the number. We will not be concerned with these in this book, but they are commonly used in scientific measurements.
A simple way to align the eight entries above is to mark them and then click on the comma icon. Commas will be placed appropriately and values shown to two decimals. The last entry is displayed as 0.12. As above, the Formula Bar will display what we entered, .1234567, and that is the figure that will be used in computations. You can increase or decrease the number of decimals displayed, as described previously.
Format a range of cells by marking it and applying the formatting style as was just demonstrated. You can use the Format command on the Menu Bar, followed by the Styles Dialog Box to select the style desired and the number of decimals to display.
Inserting or deleting rows and columns is relatively easy. If you have entered data in a row that includes columns A, B, and C and want to place a new column between A and B, do this: Click on the letter B to mark that column. On the Main Menu Bar, select Insert, and then click on Columns. You can continue, inserting as many columns as you wish by continuing to click the mouse.
If you are starting over and want to insert two columns between A and B, simply mark columns B and C at the same time and follow the procedure above. To delete these two empty columns, mark them and go to the Edit command and click Delete.
The procedure for inserting or deleting rows is exactly the same, except that you use the numbers for the rows instead of the column letters.
Filling can mean one of two things. Filling can mean that you take the contents of a given cell or range of cells and make copies of that material in adjacent cells. Filling, broadly defined, can also mean that you continue a series or sequence of content into adjacent cells. For example, you might want to list the day of the week, and begin by typing Sunday into cell A1 and Monday into cell A2. You then can continue with Tuesday through Sunday in cells A3 through A8 with a simple move. We will discuss this in the section on Series.
Filling the same content into adjacent cells:
To learn how to fill the same content into adjacent cells, follow the steps below:
• On a clean spreadsheet, enter Sunday in cell A1 and Monday in cell A2.
• Click in the center of cell A1 and drag to cell A7, activating that range.
• At the menu bar, choose Edit  Fill and click on Down.
• Now you will have Sunday copied in all the cells from A1 through A7.
Copying takes the contents of the first cell in a series of marked cells and duplicates throughout the marked cells. The content of the second cell, Monday, is removed.
Filling a Series into Adjacent Cells
To learn how to fill a series into adjacent cells, follow the steps presented below:
• As above, enter Sunday in cell A1 and Monday in cell A2.
• Make sure Monday is entered by tapping Enter or clicking on the green check mark.
• Click in the center of cell A1 and drag through A2 so both cells are marked.
• Place the mouse pointer on the black dot (the fill handle) at the lower right of the two cells.
• The mouse pointer changes to a solid black plus sign. Drag it to cell A7.
The series of days from Sunday through Saturday is listed.
An easier method of accomplishing the same thing is presented below:
• Use the above layout of Sunday in cell A1 and Monday in cell A2
• Click on A1 to activate it.
• Grab the fill handle of cell A1 and drag to A7 to complete the series.
Days of the week are special, since we have a given order determined by convention. If we choose numbers that have no agreed upon sequence, we will not get a series generated by simply choosing the first number on the list.
We can also generate a series of numbers, but the series must have an identifiable pattern.
• On a clean spreadsheet, enter 10 in A1 and 15 in A2.
• Mark A1 and A2 by dragging over them.
• Using the fill handle, drag to A10
• You should have the numbers 10, 15, 20, 25, … to 55 listed.
P.6: Formatting Numbers 19
The above activities show how easily we can copy the contents of a given cell into adjacent cells or generate a series of numbers from two examples. Now we will use the series command to generate a series of numbers.
Follow the steps presented below.
Enter these numbers in cells A1:A3: 5, 7, 9.
Activate the range A1: A10.
Using Edit  Fill  Series will produce the dialog box shown below that provides information about the series for you to verify before the program continues the series.
The dialog box displays the program’s interpretation of the data. The series is presented in Columns. It is a Linear relationship. No Date Units are provided. The Step Value and Stop Value are available for verification and determination. If you wanted to specify a value to stop at, it would be entered in that box.
Sorting becomes a useful tool when we have a set of data to analyze and want an initial look to see how it is distributed. First mark the data to be sorted and the use the Data  Sort commands. There are other ways to sort that we will also describe. Enter the data as shown below into a fresh spreadsheet.
A dialog box, shown below, requires that we specify which column to use in sorting:
The upper left cell, activated we marked the range, is listed as the default variable to use. We also have the choice of sorting ascending or descending order, using the column. At the bottom of the box we have to indicate if the row at the top is data or titles of the variables. It is correctly marked. If we click OK, the following sort results:
Names are now arranged in alphabetical order and the data connected to each name has been moved along with it. Try the above sort, but instead of accepting Name as the variable to use in sorting, click on the down arrow, which shows Weight and Income as other choices to use.
Note that we have three options for sorting. In this case we have no data that is the same for a variable, e.g. no two people weigh the same. If, for example, we had a list of 100 student members of an organization that included active and former membership status and address (street, city, zip code), then we would have a number of zip codes that are identical. In the case we might want to sort by zip code, and then by membership status if we were generating mailing labels (sorted by zip code for a cheaper rate) and different messages for different types of members. The one identifier that should not have any duplicates is social security account number, which is why it is often used as an identifier.
P.7: Saving and Retrieving Information 21
Earlier versions of Excel used one sheet as the basic unit that was stored as one file. Now, many different worksheets (determined by system memory) can be saved in a single workbook. If you have opened a new workbook and entered data that you want to save, the logical next step is to click on File in the Main Menu and click on Save. When you have a new, previously unnamed sheet, you’re then prompted to give the file a name. The default name of Book 1 appears in the File Name window of the Save As dialog box. Unless you indicate otherwise, the file will be saved in the last location used, be it the hard drive, network server, or diskette. A common default is to save in a folder called My Documents, which is found by clicking on the file folder icon having an asterisk (*) in it. This is called Favorites. The following figure shows the Save As dialog box:
In most current versions of Excel, files can have names longer that eight letter. In earlier versions, the DOS naming convention applies. In that case, a file cannot have a name longer than eight letters, followed by a period and an extension, usually .xls. A typical file name might be . There are restrictions on the symbols that you can use in a file name, which will be apparent when you get an error message for using a/or some other forbidden symbols. Newer Windows versions and earlier Mac versions allow names to have up to 256 characters, so they can be more descriptive of the contents. Use the ? and Help to learn the names and functions of the various boxes in the Save As dialog box.
The Page Setup dialog box displays four tabs along the top to access the four options: Page, Margins, Header/Footer, and Sheet. It is accessed by going to File  Page Setup.
Page allows the user the change the orientation of the page from portrait (the way this book is printed) to landscape (sideways). With the scaling commands you can adjust the size of the image to be 10% of normal size or enlarge it to 400%. The Fit to command instructs the program to automatically adjust the size to fit any of a number of pages as specified.
Beware: If you have three or four pages of material to print and direct the program to fit it to one page, it is sometimes difficult to read. You can specify that it will stay one page high and allow it to continue to the right on other sheets as far as necessary by using the two adjustments available.
Paper Size and Print Quality provide options shown via the dropdown arrow, although most often letter size paper is used, and print quality adjustments are not available. On some printers, you can move to a higher quality print by changing the dpi to a value of 1200 or more. This does increase printing time and use of ink.
Clicking on Options provides more graphic views of some of these choices, depending on your printer.
First Page Number is set to Auto as the default. If you wish to start the page numbering at a specific value, type in that value after highlighting Auto.
P.8: Printing 23
Margins are set using the options shown by clicking the Margins tab. The preview window shows how these will look as you change them. Note that you can also center the output on the page horizontally, vertically, or both. After you have changed any of the settings you can click on Print Preview… to check its appearance. You can also change the margins in Print Preview by dragging the margin boundary handles.
Headers contain the information printed across the top of all (or all but the first) pages. In this text the headers on one page indicate the chapter title and page number; on the other we have the section and page number. Sometimes this information is printed at the bottom of a page, and called a Footer. Our descriptions of the procedures for developing headers also applies to footers.
Unless you alter the settings, the header and footer shown above are the default. Click on the arrow to the right of the default header and you will see some previously used on the computer. You may wish to choose one of them and edit it to your liking. Or, if you wish, you can click on Custom Header… and obtain the following dialog box:
In this case, you have the option to place your header in the left, center, or right of the page. Use the ? and the help to determine what the icons will do for you. The letter A, when clicked, allows you to write in text, changing the font and size; others are for page numbering, date and time, filename and sheetname.
P.8: Printing 25
This page allows you to choose the area to print, whether to print titles of columns or rows on sheets that continue on to other sheets, print gridlines, the quality of print, and row and column headings. Click on the ? and point to each of the areas to learn how to use them.
Print Area allows you to select a given range to print. Simply click in the box to the right and then move to the spreadsheet where you drag to indicate the range to select.
With a bit of experience you can improve the appearance of your output by using the options described above. Using the preview option allows you to see exactly how things will look before you print them. Sometimes gridlines improve the display. An enlarged title adds clarity. Size of the sheet can be adjusted for your purposes. All of these can be explored using the options above.
When a worksheet spans more than one page, Excel determines where to insert a page break. You might find it more convenient to make the break at a different location. Use the Help function to look up page breaks in the index for directions. If you have used Page in Page Setup to fit everything onto one page, it may not appear as you wish, especially if the material takes up less than one page. Page Preview is always a good way to determine what looks best.
Clever computer users preview their material before they print it. You can go to the Print Preview command under File or simply click the icon on the Standard Toolbar. To change options, after you view your sample, you can use the menu at the top. Try out such things as Zoom, which will increase the size of the page so you can view details. Click it to turn it on and click it to return to the full page view. Setup will display the four pages described above, in that section. Margins will display lines on your preview that shows where the margins will be located. You can grab the handles and change them on the sheet. Close returns you to the regular view of the page. Print moves you to the dialog box with choices regarding the printer to use, number of copies, which pages to print, etc.
P.9: Using Formulas and Functions 27
Algebraic formulas utilize the four common operations of addition (+), subtraction (?), multiplication (×), and division (÷). When creating formulas, we will use these operations along with three others. Called operators, they are symbolized as:
Addition + Multiplication * Subtraction ? Division /
Negation refers to using the minus sign to indicate a negative number, as in ?3
Exponentiation ^ Percent %
Multiplication uses an asterisk instead of an ×. Division uses a diagonal (/) instead of the division symbol. If we wish to raise a value to a power, say X^{2} we palce the carat (^) between the X and the 2. To raise a number X to the second power, we would write X^2. Finally, we can also place a percent (%) sign behind a value, as in 20%. For example, the formuls 15 ^ 2 * 15% raises 15 to the second power and multiplies the result by 0.15 (the decimal form of 15%) to produce the result of 33.75.
We also group sets of operations together with parentheses, which determines the order of execution of commands by the computer. Any operations enclosed in parentheses are executed first, moving from the innermost parentheses to the outermost.
The order of operations in Excel is:
1. Negation, as in ?15
2. Percent
3. Exponentiation
4. Multiplication and division
5. Addition and subtraction
Excel first calculates expressions in parentheses and then uses those results to complete the calculation of the formula. For example
= 2+4*3 produces 14 because multiplication occurs before addition
=(2+4)*3 produces 18 because operations within parentheses are executed first =2+(4*3) produces 14 because operations within parentheses are executed first
In a more complex situation,
=2+(4*(3+5)^2)/2 produces 130.
First the terms in the innermost parentheses are executed, producing 8. Then this is raised to the second power, producing 64, since this is within the second set of parentheses and exponentiation has precedence over the other operations. 64 is multiplied by 4, yielding 256. This is divided by 2, producing 128. Finally added to 2 yields 130. Try this on your computer, by entering this formula into cell A1 and pressing Enter.
In the equations above, we have always used numeric constants, such as 2, 3, 4, or 5. In practice, the formula that you write will probably refer to a cell that may contain any value. This is equivalent to the X and Y that acted as unknowns in algebra. For example, to convert degrees Fahrenheit to Celsius, we use the formula:
C = 5/9(F32)
Let’s set up a table to provide this conversion. Type the label in cell A1: Degrees Fahrenheit. In cell B1 type: Degrees Celsius. Enter the two values of ?60 and ?59 in cells A2 and A3. That’s a good place to start if you live in Wisconsin in January.
Let Excel continue the series by clicking on the value of ?60 and dragging down to cell A80 to mark those cells. Then go to Edit ? Fill ? Series and notice that the program has correctly inferred that the step size is +1. Each time we move down a row the value in column A is reduced by one unit. We wish to continue the series with that change. Click OK and we have data extending from ?60 to 17 degrees. In cell B3 enter this formula:
=5/9(A332) and press Enter.
When the temperature is ?60 degrees Fahrenheit, it is ?51.11 degrees Celsius, as cell B3 indicates. Activate cell B3. Now, just click on the small square in the lower right of cell B3 (the fill handle), and drag to cell B80. The screen pointer becomes a solid black plus sign when you use the fill handle. You have copied the formula into all of those cells, with the address of each cell that represents degrees Fahrenheit changing for each row. You should have something like the following:
P.9: Using Formulas and Functions 29
To make our output more attractive, click on column B to activate that column, go to Format ? Cells
? Number and accept the default of two places to the right of the decimal. Now you should have the first few rows of data looking like this:
Now, let’s take a situation that is very commonly used by students. Compute a Grade Point Average. Enter the following information in a new blank spreadsheet.
We want to compute the Grade Point Average. We have to multiply the credits for a course by the value of the grade given for that course. In Cell E3 enter this formula: =B3*D3. Then use the fill handle in the cell to copy the formula from E3 to E6, so that you have the product of credits times value of grade for each course. The recommended procedure for setting up formulas is to click on the cell whose address you want entered, NOT type in the address of that cell. In this case you would type the = sign in E3 and then click on B3, which now appears in the formula. Then enter an asterisk (from either SHIFT8 or the * key on the keypad) followed by clicking on D3. Then either click on Enter or the green arrow in the formula bar. You should have:
P.10: Entering Formulas 31
Now all we need to do is to sum the Grade Points, sum the Credits, and then divide Grade Points by Credits to get GPA. Use the AutoSum button, (a Greek Sigma on the Standard Toolbar) to obtain the sum for each. Just activate cell B7 and click on that button. A series of dotted lines surrounds the four digits above, indicating that the program estimates that this is what you want to sum. Click Enter and the value of 15 will be displayed. Do the same for the Grade Points to obtain 50. To obtain the GPA you can enter those two values in an equation directly or enter the cell references in the equation to obtain the answer. If you do the latter, your equation would look like: =E7/B7. Put your answer in cell E10 as shown below:
Note that the value of 3.3333… doesn’t appear until you press Enter of click on the green arrow. If you click on cell E9 now, the formula you used to obtain that value will be displayed in the Formula Bar, not the value shown here. For emphasis, you can mark cells D9 and E9 and then click on the symbol to make them BOLD.
When we entered the formula for determining Grade Points in cell E3, we entered it using the relative reference mode. We told the program to go to cell B3, obtain that value, go the cell D3, obtain that value, multiply them and place the answer in E3. Actually we instructed Excel to move the three cell locations to the left (B3) of the active cell, obtain that number, move one cell to the left (D3) of the active cell, obtain that number, multiply them and place the answer in the active cell. To see how this works, try this: Activate cell E3. Note the formula in the Formula Bar. Now activate cell F3. The formula references in the formula bar have been adjusted to reflect what was said above; the program is not going to absolute locations of cells, but is moving relative to the active cell, using the same movements in the spreadsheet that were specified in the formula. Now let’s make our computation of the GPA a bit more sophisticated by using that table that gives the value of each grade. We will use a function called table lookup.
When we have a table that converts a letter grade to a corresponding number (or vice versa), we can use a builtin function known as VLOOKUP. Mark cells D3 through D6 and press delete to clear the contents. We will have the program VLOOKUP compare the grade letter printed in cells C3 through C6 to the tabled values in cells A10:B14 to fill in the number value corresponding to a letter grade. Click on the Function Wizard (the f_{X} on the Standard Toolbar). Move to the Lookup & Reference part of the Paste Function Window as shown below. Click on VLOOKUP as indicated. Then click OK.
The following window appears after you execute the above and enter the values into the formula as shown in the formula bar. After we enter the =VLOOKUP in cell D3 we enter the location of the grade to translate (cell C3), then the absolute address of the table ($A$10:$B$14), the letter 2 to indicate that we want the number from the second column in the table, followed by FALSE which indicates that we want an exact match. After accepting the formula by clicking the green arrow, we use the fill handle to copy the formula into cells D4: D6. The cells $A$10:$B$14 are absolute references because we do not want them to change as we refer to them in the operations on the second, third, and fourth grades. Whenever we want an address to be absolute, we preface the usual column letter and row number with a dollar sign. The figure below shows the formula entered into cell D3 and the resulting value of 4. Note how the C3 value is a relative value while references to the table are absolute.
P.10: Entering Formulas 33
Chapter 1 introduction the topics that will be expanded on throughout the text. No data analysis is necessary in Chapter 1 and Microsoft Excel® cannot be used here in the text.
34
Chapter 1 served to introduce many of the basic statistical concepts employed in all types of data analysis problems. Two main areas of statistics emerge from Chapter 1  descriptive and inferential statistics. Chapter 2 focuses on the descriptive area and looks at both graphical and numerical techniques that allow statisticians to summarize data that has been collected. Many of the techniques used to summarize data discussed in Statistics for Business and Economics can easily be performed with Excel. Our purpose is to explain these techniques and to illustrate them using the examples presented in the text as well as additional examples provided here. Listed below are the various techniques that Excel offers that can be used to generate the graphical and numerical topics presented in Chapter 2.
Excel offers a wide array of graphing options to the statistician. When working with qualitative data, Excel allows the statistician to create customized pie charts and bar graphs. For quantitative data, stemandleaf displays, boxplots, histograms, dot plots, and scatter plots are easy to create. The scatter plot feature in Excel can readily be used to create the time series plot discussed in the text.
As with most database and statistical software programs, Excel provides a wide array of numerical description of data. The three measures of central tendency (mean, median, and mode) and the three measures of variability (range, variance, and standard deviation) are all available in the descriptive statistics menu of Excel. Measures of relative standing (percentiles, quartiles, and zscores) are available in Excel but not as easy to access as the measures of central tendency and measures of spread.
The following examples from Statistics for Business and Economics are solved with Microsoft Excel® in this chapter:
Excel Companion Statistics for Business and Economics
Exercise Page Data Set Example/Table
2.1 36 SBE Example 2.2 Example 2.2
2.2 43 SBE Table 2.1 Table 2.1
2.3 46 SBE Example 2.19 Example 2.19
2.4 50 SBE Example 2.2 Example 2.2
2.5 51 SBE Example 2.2 Example 2.2
2.6 52 SBE Table 2.2 Example 2.4
2.7 55 SBE Table 2.2 Example 2.10
2.8 56 SBE Table 2.2 Table 2.2
2.9 58 SBE Table 2.2 Table 2.2
35
Bar graphs, pie charts, and scatter plots are all easy to generate using Excel. The graphs enable the user to summarize the data that they are viewing and make decisions quickly and easily. PHStat offers an easy method of creating pie charts and bar graphs for qualitative data within the OneWay Tables and Charts menu. For quantitative bar graphs, we will utilize the Histogram Data Analysis procedure within the Excel program.
Exercise 2.1: As an example we turn to Example 2.2 from the Statistics for Business and Economics text:
A manufacturer of industrial wheels suspects that profitable orders are being lost because of the long time the firm takes to develop price quotes for potential customers. To investigate this possibility, 50 requests for price quotes were randomly selected from the set of all quotes made last year, and the processing time was determined for each quote. The processing times are displayed below in Table 2.1, and each quote was classified according to whether the order was “lost” or not (i.e., whether or not the customer placed an order after receiving a price quote).
Table 2.1
Request  Time  Lost?  Request  Time  Lost? 
1  2.36  No  26  3.34  No 
2  5.73  No  27  6.00  No 
3  6.60  No  28  5.92  No 
4  10.05  Yes  29  7.28  Yes 
5  5.13  No  30  1.25  No 
6  1.88  No  31  4.01  No 
7  2.52  No  32  7.59  No 
8  2.00  No  33  13.42  Yes 
9  4.69  No  34  3.24  No 
10  1.91  No  35  3.37  No 
11  6.75  Yes  36  14.06  Yes 
12  3.92  No  37  5.10  No 
13  3.46  No  38  6.44  No 
14  2.64  No  39  7.76  No 
15  3.63  No  40  4.40  No 
16  3.44  No  41  5.48  No 
17  9.49  Yes  42  7.51  No 
18  4.90  No  43  6.18  No 
19  7.45  No  44  8.22  Yes 
20  20.23  Yes  45  4.37  No 
21  3.91  No  46  2.93  No 
22  1.70  No  47  9.95  Yes 
23  16.29  Yes  48  4.46  No 
24  5.52  No  49  14.32  Yes 
25  1.44  No  50  9.01  No 
a. Use a statistical software package to create a frequency histogram for these data. Then shade the area under the histogram that corresponds to lost orders.
b. Use a statistical software package to create a stemandleaf display for these data. Then shade each leaf that corresponds to a lost order.
c. Compare and interpret the two graphical displays of these data.
We answer part a. by utilizing the bar graph utility within the PHStat program. Before we begin, we must access the data set for this example. Open the Data File SBE Example 2.2 which is found on the data disk included with this manual. If done correctly, the data should appear in a workbook similar to that shown below in Figure 2.1
Figure 2.1
Our goal in part a. is to create a bar graph for the Lost? variable in the data set. Click on the PHStat menu. Choose the OneWay Tables and Charts option within the Descriptive Statistics menu. Click on the Raw Categorical Data. Now enter the rows and columns where the data is located in the Raw Data Cell Range of this menu (see Figure 2.2). This can be done by typing the location or by clicking and dragging over the appropriate data cells in your workbook. You have the option of including the variable name in the first cell of data. If selected, the variable name will appear on the graph constructed. Lastly, we must check the type of chart we wish to construct. In this example, we select the Bar Chart option. Click OK.
Figure 2.2
The bar chart generated by this menu is shown below in Figure 2.3. Note that some chart options were changed to display the bar chart in a blackandwhite format.
Figure 2.3
To generate a histogram for the quantitative data of this example we utilize the histogram technique found within the Excel program.
Once the data is available for analysis, select the Tools icon from the top of the Excel worksheet. Choose the Data Analysis option from within the Tools menu. From the Data menu choose the Histogram option (see Figure 2.4.) Click OK.
Figure 2.4
Perform these steps to enter the histogram menu within Excel. There are many options available within this menu. Our purpose here is to demonstrate the easiest method necessary to generate a histogram of the data, and to show the commands necessary to generate a histogram that matches the one shown in the text.
The easiest method to generate a histogram is shown in Figure 2.5. First, enter the rows and columns where the data is located in the Input Range of the histogram menu. This can be done by typing the location or by clicking and dragging over the appropriate data cells in your worksheet. The next step is to specify the Output Range. We have chosen to begin the output at column F, row 1 by typing F1 in the Output Range line of the histogram menu. We have the option to place this output in a new worksheet by specifying the New Worksheet Ply option. Finally, in order to generate the histogram, it is necessary to check the Chart Output option in the histogram menu. Click OK.
Figure 2.5
Excel generates two pieces of information and places this output beginning at the location we specified above. The first is a table of the data that is being charted. The table contains two pieces of information, Bin and Frequency. Bin (see Table 2.2) refers to the upper endpoint of the histogram bar that is to be drawn and Frequency is the number of observations that will be included in the corresponding bar.
Table 2.2
Bin Frequency 1.25 1 3.961428571 17 6.672857143 16 9.384285714 8 12.09571429 3 14.80714286 3 17.51857143 1 More 1 
Together, this information is used by Excel to generate the histogram (see Figure 2.6). The size of the histogram can be altered to make viewing the chart easier. Simply click on the histogram and stretch the squares on the outline of the histogram to make the display larger or smaller.
Figure 2.6
These commands generate a histogram that summarizes the data. Comparing this histogram to the one shown in the text, we see two major differences. First, this histogram has displayed the bars as being separated from one another, while the histogram in the text has bars that touch. The second difference is that the intervals, or interval endpoints, used in the two histograms differ. Both of these differences can be addressed using various options within Excel.
It is important to emphasize that no one histogram that is produced from the data is considered the “correct” one. Our purpose in duplicating the histogram presented in the text is to introduce the user to some of the many options that are available within the histogram menus of Excel. Producing a histogram comparable to the one in the book will allow for easier comparison with the stemandleaf display and for easier interpretation of the results.
The touching bars can be adjusted by clicking on any one of the bars generated in the histogram above. Next, select the Format option listed at the top of the Excel worksheet. Click on the Selected Data Series option. Select the Options tab of the Format Data Series menu (see Figure 2.7). The option that will allow the bars to touch is the Gap Width selection. Change the Gap Width to 0 to assign no gap between bars.
Figure 2.7
To change the intervals used by Excel requires the addition of a new column in the dataset used for the analysis. You must specify what Bin values that Excel should use to construct the histogram. The Bin values represent the largest endpoint of the bars generated in the chart. To duplicate the histogram presented in the text, with intervals of 2 days, the bar endpoints should be chosen at 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 18, and 21. This column of values must be entered alongside the data and chosen as the Bin Range (see Figures 2.8 and 2.9).
Figure 2.8 Figure 2.9

Together, these two changes can be used to produce a histogram that is like the one shown in the text (see Figure 2.10). Be sure to read through Example 2.2 in the text to understand how to interpret these results.
Figure 2.10
The second type of graphical technique constructed by Excel is the pie chart. Since none of the chapter examples from Statistics for Business and Economics specifically ask for a pie chart, we will use the data from Table 2.1 and create the corresponding pie chart.
Exercise 2.2:Open the Data File SBE Table 2.1, which is found on the data disk included with this manual. If done correctly, the data should appear in a workbook similar to that shown below in Figure 2.11
Figure 2.11
Our goal is to create a pie chart for the Degree variable in the data set. Choose the OneWay Tables and Charts option within the Descriptive Statistics option within the PHStat menu. Begin by entering the rows and columns where the data is located in the Variable Cell Range of this menu (see Figure 2.12). This can be done by typing the location or by clicking and dragging over the appropriate data cells in your workbook. You have the option of including the variable name in the first cell of data. If selected, the variable name will appear on the pie chart constructed. Lastly, we must check the type of chart we wish to construct. In this example, we select the Pie Chart option. Click OK.
Figure 2.12
The pie chart generated by this menu is shown below in Figure 2.13. Note that some chart options were changed to display the bar chart in a grayscale format.
Figure 2.13
Another graphing technique discussed in Statistics for Business and Economics that can be constructed within Excel is the scatter plot. We use Example 2.19 from the text to demonstrate how to conduct a scatter plot.
Exercise 2.3:Statistics for Business and Economics Example 2.19.
A medical item used to administer to a hospital patient is called a factor. For example, factors can be intravenous (IV) tubing, IV fluid, needles, shave kits, bedpans, diapers, dressings, medications, and even code carts. The coronary care unit at Bayonet Point Hospital (St. Petersburg, Florida) recently investigated the relationship between the number of factors administered per patient and the patient’s length of stay (in days). Data on these two variables for a sample of 50 coronary care patients are given in Table 2.3. Use a scattergram to describe the relationship between the two variables of interest, number of factors, and length of stay.
Table 2.3
Number of Factors  Length of Stay (in Days)  Number of Factors  Length of Stay (in Days)  Number of Factors  Length of Stay (in Days) 
231  9  233  8  115  4 
323  7  260  4  202  6 
113  8  224  7  206  5 
208  5  472  12  360  6 
162  4  220  8  84  3 
117  4  383  6  331  9 
159  6  301  9  302  7 
169  9  262  7  60  2 
55  6  354  11  110  2 
77  3  142  7  131  5 
103  4  286  9  364  4 
147  6  341  10  180  7 
230  6  201  5  134  6 
78  3  158  11  401  15 
525  9  243  6  155  4 
121  7  156  6  338  8 
248  5  184  7 
Solution:
Excel offers a Chart Wizard to help create a variety of charts. It is easy to use and we now will demonstrate with the data from the example above. Open Data File SBE Example 2.19. To enter the Chart Wizard, Click on the Insert menu located at the top of the Excel worksheet. Click the chart option within the Insert menu. Highlight the XY(Scatter) option within the Step 1  Chart Type of the Chart Wizard (See Figure 2.14) Click Next to advance to Step 2  Chart Source Data. Both variables to be plotted need to be included in the Data range entry within this menu. Make sure that the first row or column of data pertains to the variable to be plotted on the xaxis. The second row column of data should pertain to the yaxis variable. Enter this Data Range (see Figure 2.15) and click Next. Step 3  Chart Options allows the user to specify many graphing options. We only mention that it is here that titles can be added to the scatter plot to ease the understanding of the graph (see Figure 2.16). We leave the user to experiment with the other options available at this step. Clicking Next allows the user to finish the Chart Wizard in Step 4  Chart Location. The user may specify where the constructed scatter plot will appear in Excel (see Figure 2.17). Fill in the location as either a new worksheet or as an object and click Finish. The finished plot for this example appears in Figure 2.18.
Figure 2.14
Figure 2.15
Figure 2.16
Figure 2.17
Figure 2.18
The scatter plot can also be used to create the time series plot discussed in Statistics for Business and Economics. When creating the scatter plot, the measure of time over which the data was collected should be used as the xaxis variable in the time series plot. All other steps are identical to that of the scatter plot discussed here.
PHStat allow the user to easily create stemandleaf displays for quantitative data. We demonstrate by using Example 2.2 part b., found in the Statistics for Business and Economics text.
Exercise 2.4: Use PHStat to create a stemandleaf display for these data.
Solution: We answer part b. by utilizing the StemandLeaf Display utility within the PHStat program. Before we begin, we must access the data set for this example. Open the Data File SBE Example 2.2 which is found on the data disk included with this manual. Choose the StemandLeaf Display option within the Descriptive Statistics option within the PHStat menu. Begin by entering the column where the data is located in the Variable Cell Range of this menu (see Figure 2.19). This can be done by typing the location or by clicking and dragging over the appropriate data cells in your workbook. You have the option of including the variable name in the first cell of data. If selected, the variable name will appear on the graph constructed. You also have the option of specifying a title for the stemandleaf display constructed. Click OK. The resulting stemandleaf display is shown in Figure 2.20.
Figure 2.19 Figure 2.20

PHStat allow the user to easily create box plots for quantitative data. We demonstrate by using the data from Example 2.2 of the Statistics for Business and Economics text. A box plot for the 50 processing times is constructed below.
Exercise 2.5: Use PHStat to create a box plot for the 50 processing times of the data of Example 2.2.
Solution: We create the box plot by utilizing the BoxandWhisker Plot utility within the PHStat program. Before we begin, we must access the data set for this example. Open the Data File SBE Example 2.2 which is found on the data disk included with this manual. Choose the BoxandWhisker Plot option within the Descriptive Statistics option within the PHStat menu. Begin by entering the column where the data is located in the Variable Cell Range of this menu (see Figure 2.21). This can be done by typing the location or by clicking and dragging over the appropriate data cells in your workbook. You have the option of including the variable name in the first cell of data. If selected, the variable name will appear on the graph constructed. Select the Single Group Variable option whenever data appear in a single column. You also have the option of specifying a title for the box plot constructed. Click OK. The resulting box plot is shown in Figure 2.22.
Figure 2.21
Figure 2.22
Excel allows the user to create many descriptive measures of data through the use of the Descriptive Statistics data analysis. While Excel doesn’t distinguish between the different types of numerical measures, we choose to follow the Statistics for Business and Economics text and look at the measures of center, spread, and relative standing one at a time. We begin with measures of center.
Exercise 2.6 We use Statistics for Business and Economics Example 2.4 to illustrate the measures of center.
Calculate the sample mean for the R&D expenditure percentages of the 50 companies listed below in Table 2.4.
53 Chapter 2: Methods for Describing Sets of Data
Table 2.4
Company  Percentage  Company  Percentage  Company Percentage 
1  13.5  18  6.9  35 8.5 
2  8.4  19  7.5  36 9.4 
3  10.5  20  11.1  37 10.5 
4  9  21  8.2  38 6.9 
5  9.2  22  8  39 6.5 
6  9.7  23  7.7  40 7.5 
7  6.6  24  7.4  41 7.1 
8  10.6  25  6.5  42 13.2 
9  10.1  26  9.5  43 7.7 
10  7.1  27  8.2  44 5.9 
11  8  28  6.9  45 5.2 
12  7.9  29  7.2  46 5.6 
13  6.8  30  8.2  47 11.7 
14  9.5  31  9.6  48 6 
15  8.1  32  7.2  49 7.8 
16  13.5  33  8.8  50 6.5 
17  9.9  34  11.3 
Solution:
We must first retrieve data set to work with. Open the file SBE Table 2.2. Once the data is available, click on the Tools menu that appears at the top of the Excel worksheet. Select the Data Analysis option in the Tools menu and choose the Descriptive Statistics item (see Figure 2.23). Click OK.
Figure 2.23
From the Descriptive Statistics menu, the user must specify the Input Range, the Output Range, and which statistics are desired. As with all Excel analyses, the Input Range should be the range of cells where the data set is located in the Excel worksheet. Either type or highlight with the mouse and enter the data set location for the Input Range (see Figure 2.24). The Output Range can either be a location within the current worksheet or a new Worksheet that you define. We opt to place the output in cell D1 of the current worksheet. Finally, the Summary Statistics box needs to be checked to generate the measures of center that are desired. Click OK.
Figure 2.24
Excel calculates the three measures of center, mean, median, and mode for the data set of interest (see Table 2.5). The mean R&D expenditure for the 50 companies is reported to be 8.492 percent.
Table 2.5
Mean 8.492 Standard Error 0.2801 Median 8.05 Mode 6.9 Standard Deviation 1.980604 Sample Variance 3.922792 Kurtosis 0.419288 Skewness 0.854601 Range 8.3 Minimum 5.2 Maximum 13.5 Sum 424.6 Count 50 
Calculating the measures of center for other data sets requires only changing the Input Range values in the Descriptive Statistics menu above. Notice that the values for both the sample median and sample mode are also given on this printout.
The three measures of spread, range, standard deviation, and variance are found in the same manner as the measures of center above. We will use Example 2.10 from Statistics for Business and Economics to demonstrate.
Exercise 2.7 We use Statistics for Business and Economics Example 2.10.
Use the computer to find the sample variance s^{2} and the sample standard deviation s for the 50 companies’ percentage of revenues spent on R & D. The data is shown in Table 2.6.
Table 2.6
Company  Percentage  Company  Percentage  Company  Percentage 
1  13.5  18  6.9  35  8.5 
2  8.4  19  7.5  36  9.4 
3  10.5  20  11.1  37  10.5 
4  9  21  8.2  38  6.9 
5  9.2  22  8  39  6.5 
6  9.7  23  7.7  40  7.5 
7  6.6  24  7.4  41  7.1 
8  10.6  25  6.5  42  13.2 
9  10.1  26  9.5  43  7.7 
10  7.1  27  8.2  44  5.9 
11  8  28  6.9  45  5.2 
12  7.9  29  7.2  46  5.6 
13  6.8  30  8.2  47  11.7 
14  9.5  31  9.6  48  6 
15  8.1  32  7.2  49  7.8 
16  13.5  33  8.8  50  6.5 
17  9.9  34  11.3 
Solution:
We must first retrieve a data set to work with. Open the file SBE Table 2.2. Once the data is available, click on the Tools menu that appears at the top of the Excel worksheet. Select the Data Analysis option in the Tools menu and choose the Descriptive Statistics item (see Figure 2.23). Click OK.
From the Descriptive Statistics menu, the user must specify the Input Range, the Output Range, and which statistics are desired. As with all Excel analyses, the Input Range should be the range of cells where the data set is located in the Excel worksheet. Either type or highlight with the mouse and enter the data set location for the Input Range (see Figure 2.24). The Output Range can either be a location within the current worksheet or a new Worksheet that you define. We opt to place the output in cell D1 of the current worksheet. Finally, the Summary Statistics box needs to be checked to generate the measures of center that are desired. Click OK.
Excel calculates the three measures of spread, range, standard deviation, and variance for the data set of interest (see Table 2.7). The sample variance for the R&D expenditure of the 50 companies is reported to be 3.922792 and the sample standard deviation is 1.980604 percent.
Table 2.7
Mean 8.492 Standard Error 0.2801 Median 8.05 Mode 6.9 Standard Deviation 1.980604 Sample Variance 3.922792 Kurtosis 0.419288 Skewness 0.854601 Range 8.3 Minimum 5.2 Maximum 13.5 Sum 424.6 Count 50 
Calculating the measures of spread for other data sets requires only changing the Input Range values in the Descriptive Statistics menu above.
Excel allows the user to calculate the two measures of relative standing, percentiles and zscores through the use of two of it’s many functions. We first look at how Excel calculates percentiles.
Exercise 2.8
Use the data from Exercise 2.7 to calculate the 20th percentile of the R&D percentages.
Solution:
We must first retrieve a data set to work with. Open the file SBE Table 2.2. Once the data is available, click the icon at the top of the Excel worksheet. By clicking on the down arrow, you can access the More Functions menu. Choose the Statistical Function Category and cursor down until you reach the function name PERCENTILE (see Figure 2.25). The PERCENTILE function has the form:
PERCENTILE(array,k)
where array represents the location of the data set that you want to find the percentile for, and k is a number between 0 and 1 that represents the percentile that is desired.
Figure 2.25
For this example, the 50 R&D percentages are located in column B in rows 2 through 51. We assign the Array location to be B2:B51 (see Figure 2.26). We also assign the value of K to be .20 respresenting the 20th percentile. Click OK.
Figure 2.26
Excel returns a value of 6.9. We interpret that 6.9 represents the 20th percentile of the 50 R&D percentages in our data set. By changing the data set and the value of K, we can find percentiles for any group of data.
The second measure of relative standing is the zscore. Again, we turn in Excel to a function that will allow the user to calculate values for a zscore. For purposes of illustration, we will again use the data from Example 2.10 to find a zvalue.
Exercise 2.9
Use the 50 R&D percentages to find the zscore for an R&D percentage of 10%.
Solution:
We must first retrieve a data set to work with. Open the file SBE Table 2.2. Once the data is available, click the icon at the top of the Excel worksheet. By clicking on the down arrow, you can access the Statistical Function Category and cursor down until you reach the function name STANDARDIZE (see Figure 2.27). The STANDARDIZE function has the form: STANDARDIZE (x, mean, standardize_dev)
where x represents the value that you wish to determine the zscore for, mean represents the mean of the data set that you want to find the zscore for, and standard deviation represents the standard deviation of the data set that you want to find the zscore for.
Figure 2.27
For this example, we use the value of 10 as our choice for X in the STANDARDIZE function (see Figure 2.28). From the work we did on Exercise 2.7, we know to use a value of 8.492 for the mean and a value of 1.980604 for the standard deviation. Click OK.
Figure 2.28
Excel returns a value of 0.761383901. We make the interpretation that an R&D percentage of 10% would fall approximately .76 standard deviation above the mean R&D percentage of the 50 companies. By changing the values of X, Mean, and Standard Deviation, we can find zscores for a wide variety of situations.
A manufacturer of industrial wheels is losing many profitable orders because of the long time it takes the firm's marketing, engineering, and accounting departments to develop price quotes for potential customers. To remedy this problem the firm's management would like to set guidelines for the length of time each department should spend developing price quotes. To help develop these guidelines, 50 requests for price quotes were randomly selected from the set of all price quotes made last year; the processing time was determined for each department. These times are displayed in the table below and are contained in the Excel file Technology Lab 2. The price quotes are also classified by whether they were "lost" (i.e., whether or not the customer placed an order after receiving the price quote).
a. Construct a bar graph and a pie chart to determine the relative frequencies of the orders that were lost.
b. Construct a histogram for the price quote processing times (in days) of the marketing department.
c. Construct a stemandleaf display for the price quote processing times (in days) of the engineering department.
d. Construct a scatterplot that compares the price quote processing times (in days) of the engineering and the accounting departments.
e. Construct a box plot for the price quote processing times (in days) of the marketing department.
f. Find the descriptive statistics for the price quote processing times (in days) of the all three departments.
Use the Excel output provided below to check your work.
PRICE QUOTE PROCESSING TIME (IN Days)  
Request Number  Marketing  Engineering  Accounting  Lost?  Request Number  Marketing  Engineering  Accounting  Lost? 
1  7  6.2  0.1  2  26  0.6  2.2  0.5  2 
2  0.4  5.2  0.1  2  27  6  1.8  0.2  2 
3  2.4  4.6  0.6  2  28  5.8  0.6  0.5  2 > 
4  6.2  13  0.8  1  29  7.8  7.2  2.2  1 
5  4.7  0.9  0.5  2  30  3.2  6.9  0.1  2 
6  1.3  0.4  0.1  2  31  11  1.7  3.3  2 
7  7.3  6.1  0.1  2  32  6.2  1.3  2  2 
8  5.6  3.6  3.8  2  33  6.9  6  10.5  1 
9  5.5  9.6  0.5  2  34  5.4  0.4  8.4  2 
10  5.3  4.8  0.8  2  35  6  7.9  0.4  2 
11  6  2.6  0.1  2  36  4  1.8  18.2  1 
12  2.6  11.3  1  2  37  4.5  1.3  0.3  2 
13  2  0.6  0.8  2  38  2.2  4.8  0.4  2 
14  0.4  12.2  1  2  39  3.5  7.2  7  1 
15  8.7  2.2  3.7  2  40  0.1  0.9  14.4  2 
16  4.7  9.6  0.1  2  41  2.9  7.7  5.8  2 
17  6.9  12.3  0.2  1  42  5.4  3.8  0.3  2 
18  0.2  4.2  0.3  2  43  6.7  1.3  0.1  2 
19  5.5  3.5  0.4  2  44  2  6.3  9.9  1 
20  2.9  5.3  22  2  45  0.1  12  3.2  2 
21  5.9  7.3  1.7  2  46  6.4  1.3  6.2  2 
22  6.2  4.4  0.1  2  47  4  2.4  13.5  1 
23  4.1  2.1  30  1  48  10  5.3  0.1  2 
24  5.8  0.6  0.1  2  49  8  14.4  1.9  1 
25  5  3.1  2.3  2  50  7  10  2  2 
Chapter 2: Technology Lab 61
Engineering Processing Times for Engineering Stem unit: 1 0 4 4 6 6 6 9 9  
1  3 3 3 3 7 8 8 
2  1 2 2 4 6 
3  1 5 6 8 
4  2 4 6 8 8 
5  2 3 3 
6  0 1 2 3 9 
7  2 2 3 7 9 
8 9  6 6 
10  0 
11  3 
12  0 2 3 
13  0 
14  4 
Chapter 2: Technology Lab 63
Marketing  Engineering  Accounting  
Mean  4.766  5.044  3.652 
Standard Error  0.3654308  0.54229414  0.88479325 
Median  5.4  4.5  0.8 
Mode  6.2  1.3  0.1 
Standard Deviation  2.583986  3.83459867  6.2564331 
Sample Variance  6.6769837  14.7041469  39.1429551 
Kurtosis  0.2561865  0.3393416  6.90660771 
Skewness  0.1027209  0.75624587  2.55214148 
Range  10.9  14  29.9 
Minimum  0.1  0.4  0.1 
Maximum  11  14.4  30 
Sum  238.3  252.2  182.6 
Count  50  50  50 
Chapter 3 introduces the topic of probability and random sampling to the reader. PHStat allows the user to work with simple probabilities found in a 2x2 table. In addition, PHStat offers the reader a convenient method of drawing a sample of size n from a population of N items. Both procedures are discussed below.
Chapter 3 introduces the reader to the idea of presenting descriptive results of collected data in a tabular form. The simplest form of these tables is the 2x2 table, where data from two variables (with two levels each) are presented. An example of a 2x2 table is shown below in Table 3.1. Table 3.1 shows data collected from a sample of customers at a neighborhood restaurant. The two variables shown in the table are age of customer and sex of customer
Table 3.1
Age of Customer 1835 3670  
Sex  Male  40 12  
Female  31 17 
PHStat offers the reader a probability utility that will allow the calculation of simple probabilities, as well as the probabilities of unions and intersections. This utility is only offered for data that can be arranged in a 2x2 table similar to the one shown in Table 3.1. We illustrate with the following example.
Exercise 3.1 Use the data shown in Table 3.1 to find the following:
a. Find the probability that a randomly selected customer is male.
b. Find the proportion of all customers that are female or aged 3670.
c. Find the probability that a randomly selected customer is male and 1835.
To use the probability function within PHStat, open a new workbook and place the cursor in the upper left cell of the worksheet. Click on the PHStat menu at the top of the screen. Select the Probability and Prob. Distributions option from the choices available and then select the Simple & Joint Probabilities option from those listed. You should open a worksheet that looks like the one shown in Figure 3.1.
This worksheet is a template that allows the user to change the values of the sample space to represent the data of their 2x2 table. We begin by replacing the generic labels Event A and Event B with the variable names of our example, Age and Sex of Customer. The next step is to replace the outcomes that are listed in the table as A1, A2, B1, and B2 with the outcomes that are meaningful in our example (e.g., male, female, 1835, and 3670). The final step is to change the numbers shown in the table with the numbers that are shown in Table 3.1. The changed worksheet is shown in Figure 3.2
64
Section 3.2: Probabilities in a 2x2 Table 65
Figure 3.1
66Chapter 3: Probability
Figure 3.2
The answers to the questions in Example 3.1 can each be found in the probabilities calculated in the worksheet. The probability that a randomly selected customer is male is shown to be .52. The proportion of all customers that are female or aged 3670 is shown to be .60. The probability that a randomly selected customer is male and 1835 is .40. Other similar probabilities are shown in the table as well. [Note to reader: The data for this example can be found in the data set Table 31 found on the accompanying data disk]
Section 3.3: Random Sampling 67
Section 3.7 in the text defines to the reader what a random sample is and gives a method of generating a random sample that utilizes the random number table found in Table 1 of the Statistics for Business and Economics text. PHStat offers a simpler method of drawing a random sample from a population of known population size.
To use the random sample generator within PHStat, open a new workbook and place the cursor in the upper left cell of the worksheet. Click on the PHStat menu at the top of the screen. Select the Sampling option from the choices available and then select the Random Sample Generator option from those listed. You will open the Random Sample Generator Menu shown in Figure 3.3. PHStat offers two methods of drawing a random sample. The first involves the user selecting both the sample size and population size that is appropriate for a particular sampling problem. The second involves actually selecting the sample size from a set of data that is already entered into an Excel worksheet. We illustrate both methods on the following page.
Figure 3.3
Exercise 3.2: Find which objects to sample if you wish to randomly sample 10 items from a list of 400 items.
To solve this problem, we simply enter the value 10 for the sample size and enter the value 400 for the population size in the menu above (see Figure 3.4). We have the choice of entering a title for the resulting output if we desire. When finished we click on OK. The output is shown below in Table 3.2. It is important to note that if we again use the same values for n and N, the sample items will change.
68Chapter 3: Probability
Figure 3.4
Table 3.2
Items to Sample 341 113 309 156 370 29 221 319 236 212 
Exercise 3.3: Use the data set from Example 2.19 in the text to randomly select five Length of Stays from the 50 that were given in the data set.
We first open data set SBE Example 2.19 found on the data disk that accompanies this manual. We again must enter the sample size that is desired; in this case the value 5 will be entered. For this use of the random sample generator, we selectthe select values from range option. We then enter the cell location of the data that we wish to sample from, in this case the Length of Stay data located in cells B2 through B52. Again, a title can be entered if desired (see Figure 3.5). Click OK. The output is shown below in Table 3.3.
Section 3.3: Random Sampling 69
Figure 3.5
Table 3.3
Sample Length of Stays 7 6 8 12 4 
Note again that if we were to use the random sample generator again, the resulting output would differ, as the results of the random numbers selected would vary (randomly) from one sample to the next.
Chapter 4 introduces random variables and sampling distributions to the reader. Two discrete random variable, the binomial and the poisson, and two continuous random variables, the uniform and the normal, are discussed in detail. In addition, the sampling distribution of the sample mean is introduced in Chapter 4.
PHStat can be used to find both individual and cumulative probabilities for both the discrete binomial and poisson random variables. PHStat can be used in place of either the formula or table methods described in the text. The Cumulative Probability option that PHStat offers allows the user to find a variety of forms for the probabilities of interest. Whether the problems asks the reader for "at least", "at most", "more than", "less than", or "equal to", PHStat will provide the desired probability for both binomial and poisson probability distributions.
PHStat can be used in place of the statistical tables to find probabilities for the continuous normal distribution. This distribution can be used both when working with normal random variables and when working with the sampling distribution of the sample mean. In addition, PHStat offers the user the ability to assess the normality of a distribution of data through the use of its normal probability plot option. The uniform random variable can be solved rather easily using simple mathematics and PHStat is not necessary in these calculations.
The following examples from Statistics for Business andEconomics are solved with Microsoft Excel® in this chapter:
Excel Companion Exercise Page Statistic for Business and Economics
4.1 71 Example 4.12
4.2 73 Example 4.13
4.3 75 Example 4.20
4.4 77 Example 4.23
4.5 78 Example 4.24
4.6 80 Example 4.29
To use the binomial probability tool within PHStat, open a new workbook and place the cursor in the upper left cell of the worksheet. Click on the PHStat menu at the top of the screen. Select the Probability & Prob. Distributions option from the choices available and then select the Binomial option from those listed. You should open the Binomial Probability Distribution menu that looks like the one shown in Figure 4.1.
70
Section 4.2: Calculating Binomial Probabilities
Figure 4.1
The user is required to enter the sample size, n, and the probability of success, p, from the binomial probability distribution of interest. The user then must specify the values of the Outcomes that he or she wishes to find probabilities for. For most applications, the Cumulative Probabilities option should be selected in order to maximize the information that PHStat will offer. An Output Title can be optionally selected and a Histogram can be specified if the user so desires. Click OK to finish. We illustrate with the next example.
Exercise 4.1: As an example, we turn to Example 4.11 from the Statistics for Business and Economics text.
Suppose a poll of 20 employees is taken in a large company. The purpose is to determine x, the number who favor unionization. Suppose that 60% of all the company’s employees favor unionization.
a. Find the mean and standard deviation of x.
b. Find the probability that x ? 10.
c. Find the probability that x > 12.
d. Find the probability that x = 11.
Solution:
We utilize the Binomial Probability Distribution within PHStat to solve parts bd. In order to solve these questions, we identify in the problem that the sample size is n=20 and the probability of a success is p=.60. We enter both of these values in the appropriate locations in the Binomial Probability Distribution menu shown if Figure 4.2. We choose here to specify all possible Outcomes 0 to 20 in this problem to demonstrate the output that PHStat is capable of. Note that to answer parts bd, we only need to specify the Outcomes 10 to 12. We also check the Cumulative Probabilities box and finish by clicking OK. The output generated by PHStat is shown in Table 4.1.
Figure 4.2
Table 4.1
SBE Example 4.11  
Data  P(X) P(<=X) P(<X) P(>X) P(>=X)  
Sample size  20  
Probability of success  0.6  
Statistics  
Mean  12  
Variance  4.8  
Standard deviation  2.19089  
Binomial Probabilities Table X  
0 1.1E08 1.1E08 0 1 1 1 3.3E07 3.41E07 1.1E08 1 1 2 4.7E06 5.04E06 3.41E07 0.999995 13 4.23E05 4.73E05 5.04E06 0.999953 0.9999954 0.00027 0.000317 4.73E05 0.999683 0.9999535 0.001294 0.001612 0.000317 0.998388 0.999683 6 0.004854 0.006466 0.001612 0.993534 0.998388 7 0.014563 0.021029 0.006466 0.978971 0.993534 8 0.035497 0.056526 0.021029 0.943474 0.978971 9 0.070995 0.127521 0.056526 0.872479 0.943474
10 0.127521 0.755337 0.872479 11 0.244663 0.595599 0.755337 12 0.179706 0.584107 0.4044010.595599 13 0.165882 0.749989 0.584107 0.250011 0.415893 14 0.124412 0.874401 0.749989 0.125599 0.250011 15 0.074647 0.949048 0.874401 0.050952 0.125599 16 0.034991 0.984039 0.949048 0.015961 0.05095217 0.01235 0.996389 0.984039 0.003611 0.01596118 0.003087 0.999476 0.996389 0.000524 0.00361119 0.000487 0.999963 0.999476 3.66E05 0.000524 20 3.66E05 1 0.999963 0 3.66E05 
Section 4.3: Calculating Poisson Probabilities
The answers to questions bd are shown in the highlighted boxes above. Notice the column that each appears in. PHStat can be used to solve a wide variety of binomial probabilities by simply changing the values of n, p, and the outcomes desired.
To use the poisson probability tool within PHStat, open a new workbook and place the cursor in the upper left cell of the worksheet. Click on the PHStat menu at the top of the screen. Select the Probability & Prob. Distributions option from the choices available and then select the Poisson option from those listed. You should open the Poisson Probability Distribution menu that looks like the one shown in Figure 4.3.
Figure 4.3
The user is required to enter the average or expected number of successes (e.g., the mean), ?, from the poisson probability distribution of interest. For most applications, the Cumulative Probabilities option should be selected in order to maximize the information that PHStat will offer. An Output Title can be optionally selected and a Histogram can be specified if the user so desires. Click OK to finish. We illustrate with the next example.
Exercise 4.2: As an example, we turn to Example 4.13 from the Statistics for Business and Economics text:
Suppose the number, x, of a company’s employees who are absent on Mondays has (approximately) a Poisson probability distribution. Furthermore, assume that the average number of Monday absentees is 2.6.
a. Find the mean and standard deviation of x, the number of employees absent on Monday.
b. Find the probability that fewer than two employees are absent on a given Monday.
c. Find the probability that more than five employees are absent on a given Monday.
d. Find the probability that exactly five employees are absent on a given Monday.
Solution:
We utilize the Poisson Probability Distribution within PHStat to solve parts bd. In order to solve these questions, we identify in the problem that the mean absenteeism within the problem is ?=2.6. We enter this value in the appropriate location in the Poisson Probability Distribution menu shown if Figure 4.4 We check the Cumulative Probabilities box and finish by clicking OK. The output generated by PHStat is shown in Table 4.2.
Figure 4.4
Table 4.2
SBE Example 4.12 Data Average/Expected number of successes: 2.6 Poisson Probabilities Table X P(X) P(<=X) P(<X) P(>X) P(>=X) 0 0.074274 0.074274 0.000000 0.925726 1.000000 1 0.193111 0.267385 0.074274 0.732615 0.925726
2 0.251045 0.5184300.481570 0.732615 3 0.217572 0.736002 0.518430 0.263998 0.481570 4 0.141422 0.877423 0.736002 0.122577 0.263998
5 0.122577 6 0.031867 0.982830 0.950963 0.017170 0.049037 7 0.011836 0.994666 0.982830 0.005334 0.017170 8 0.003847 0.998513 0.994666 0.001487 0.005334 9 0.001111 0.999624 0.998513 0.000376 0.00148710 0.000289 0.999913 0.999624 0.000087 0.000376 11 0.000068 0.999982 0.999913 0.000018 0.000087 12 0.000015 0.999996 0.999982 0.000004 0.000018 13 0.000003 0.999999 0.999996 0.000001 0.000004 14 0.000001 1.000000 0.999999 0.000000 0.000001 15 0.000000 1.000000 1.000000 0.000000 0.000000 16 0.000000 1.000000 1.000000 0.000000 0.000000 17 0.000000 1.000000 1.000000 0.000000 0.000000 18 0.000000 1.000000 1.000000 0.000000 0.000000 19 0.000000 1.000000 1.000000 0.000000 0.000000 20 0.000000 1.000000 1.000000 0.000000 0.000000 
The answers to questions bd are shown in the highlighted boxes above. Notice the column that each appears in. PHStat can be used to solve a wide variety of poisson probabilities by simply changing the value of ?.
Section 4.4: Calculating Normal Probabilities
To use the normal probability tool within PHStat, open a new workbook and place the cursor in the upper left cell of the worksheet. Click on the PHStat menu at the top of the screen. Select the Probability & Prob. Distributions option from the choices available and then select the Normal option from those listed. You should open the Normal Probability Distribution menu that looks like the one shown in Figure 4.5.
Figure 4.5
The user is required to enter the Mean, ?, and the Standard Deviation, ?, from the normal probability distribution of interest. The user then must specify the type of Input Options that they desire. Several different probability options are available as is finding a specified value of X in the normal distribution. An Output Title can be optionally selected if the user so desires. Click OK to finish. We illustrate with the next two examples.
Exercise 4.3: We use Example 4.20 from the Statistics for Business and Economics text:
Suppose an automobile manufacturer introduces a new model that has an advertised mean incity mileage of 27 miles per gallon. Although such advertisements seldom report in any measure of variability, suppose you write the manufacturer for the details of the test, and find that the standard deviation is 3 miles per gallon. This information leads you to formulate a probability model for the random variable, x, the incity mileage for this car model. You believe that the probability distribution of x can be approximated by a normal distribution with a mean of 27 and a standard deviation of 3.
a. If you were to buy this model of automobile, what is the probability that you would purchase one that averages less than 20 miles per gallon for incity driving? In other words, find P(x < 20).
Solution:
We utilize the Normal Probability Distribution within PHStat to solve the problem. In order to solve these questions, we identify in the problem that the mean is ?=27 and the standard deviation is ?=3. We enter both of these values in the appropriate locations in the Normal Probability Distribution menu shown if Figure 4.6. We choose here to specify the Input Option Probability for: X <= as the question we wish to solve is P(x < 20). We enter the value 20 in the appropriate space in the menu. We also enter an Output Title and finish by clicking OK. The output generated by PHStat is shown in Table 4.3.
Figure 4.6
Table 4.3
SBE Example 4.20  
Common Data  
Mean  27 
Standard Deviation  3 
Probability for X <=  
X Value  20 
Z Value  2.333333 
P(X<=20)  0.0098153 
PHStat returns the probability 0.0098. We can verify this result using the normal procedures discussed in the text and Table IV in the Appendix. By changing the input options in the normal probability distribution menu, the user can calculate any type of probability desired. We illustrate finding a point in the normal distribution in the next example.
Section 4.4: Calculating Normal Probabilities
Exercise 4.4: We use the Example 4.23 from the Statistics for Business and Economics text:
Suppose a paint manufacturer has a daily production, x, that is normally distributed with a mean of 100,000 gallons and a standard deviation of 10,000 gallons. Management wants to create an incentive bonus for the production crew when the daily production exceeds the 90th percentile of the distribution, in hopes that the crew will, in turn, become more productive. At what level of production should management pay the incentive bonus?
Solution:
We utilize the Normal Probability Distribution within PHStat to solve the problem. In order to solve these questions, we identify in the problem that the mean is ?=100,000 and the standard deviation is ?=10,000. We enter both of these values in the appropriate locations in the Normal Probability Distribution menu shown if Figure 4.7. We choose here to specify the Input Option X for Cumulative Percentage: as the question we wish to find the 90^{th} percentile of the production distribution. We enter the value 90 in the appropriate space in the menu. We also enter an Output Title and finish by clicking OK. The output generated by PHStat is shown in Table 4.4.
Table 4.4
SBE Example 4.23  
Common Data  
Mean  100000 
Standard Deviation  10000 
Find X and Z Given Cum. Pctage.  
Cumulative Percentage  90.00% 
Z Value  1.281552 
X Value  112815.5 
Figure 4.7
PHStat returns the desired production level of 112,815 gallons of paint. We can verify this result using the normal procedures discussed in the text and Table IV of the Appendix. By changing the cumulative percentage in the normal probability distribution menu, the user can find any value of X desired.
PHStat offers the user a method of assessing whether a data set possesses a normal distribution. The Normal Probability Plot utility creates a plot that enables the reader to determine the shape of the data. The Normal Probability Plot is found by clicking on the PHStat menu and selecting the Probability Distribution option. Select the Normal Probability Plot option to generate a menu similar to the one shown below in Figure 4.8. The user must specify the Variable Cell Range that the data is located in and has the option of titling the output. Click OK when finished. We illustrate below with the following example.
Figure 4.8
Exercise 4.5: We utilize the EPA Gas Mileage Ratings for 100 Cars that is given in Example 4.24 of the Statistics for Business and Economics text. The data is shown below in Table 4.5. Construct a normal probability plot of the data and assess the shape of the EPA gas mileage ratings.
Table 4.5
EPA Gas Mileage Ratings for 100 Cars (miles per gallon) 
36.3 41.0 36.9 37.1 44.9 36.8 30.0 37.2 42.1 36.7 32.7 37.3 41.2 36.6 32.9 36.5 33.2 37.4 37.5 33.6 40.5 36.5 37.6 33.9 40.2 36.4 37.7 37.7 40.0 34.2 36.2 37.9 36.0 37.9 35.9 38.2 38.3 35.7 35.6 35.1 38.5 39.0 35.5 34.8 38.6 39.4 35.3 34.4 38.8 39.7 36.3 36.8 32.5 36.4 40.5 36.6 36.1 38.2 38.4 39.3 41.0 31.8 37.3 33.1 37.0 37.6 37.0 38.7 39.0 35.8 37.0 37.2 40.7 37.4 37.1 37.8 35.9 35.6 36.7 34.5 37.1 40.3 36.7 37.0 33.9 40.1 38.0 35.2 34.8 39.5 39.9 36.9 32.9 33.8 39.8 34.0 36.8 35.0 38.1 36.9 
Section 4.5: Assessing the Normality of a Data Set
Solution:
We first open the Excel data set SBE Example 4.24 to access the worksheet that contains the EPA gas mileage ratings. We specify the location of the data in the Variable Cell Range portion of the Normal Probability Plot menu (we choose to contain the label in the first cell of the specified range). We also choose to select an Output Title for the plot. To finish, we click OK (see Figure 4.9). The plot created by PHStat is shown in Figure 4.10.
Figure 4.9
Figure 4.10
We can see from this plot that the data appear to fall in a straight line. This indicates that the data possess an approximate normal distribution.
The Central Limit Theorem guarantees that for large n, the sampling distribution of the sample mean possesses an approximate normal sampling distribution. In order to calculate probabilities for these sampling distributions, we must utilize the normal probability distribution within PHStat. To do this, we open a new workbook and place the cursor in the upper left cell of the worksheet. Click on the PHStat menu at the top of the screen. Select the Probability Distribution option from the choices available and then select the Normal option from those listed. You should open the Normal Probability Distribution menu that looks like the one shown in Figure 4.11.
Figure 4.11
The user is required to enter the Mean, ?, and the Standard Deviation, ?, from the normal probability distribution of interest. The user then must specify the type of Input Options that they desire. Several different probability options are available as is finding a specified value of X in the normal distribution. An Output Title can be optionally selected if the user so desires. Click OK to finish. We illustrate how to use this menu when working with the sampling distribution of x in the next example.
Exercise 4.6: We use Example 4.29 from the Statistics for Business and Economics text.
Suppose we have selected a random sample of n = 36 observations from a population with mean equal to 80 and standard deviation equal to 6. It is known that the population is not extremely skewed. Find the probability that the sample mean will be larger than 82.
Solution:
The material in this section of the text indicates that the sampling distribution of the sample mean will be approximately normal with a mean of 80 and a standard deviation of 1. We utilize this knowledge and the Normal Probability Distribution within PHStat to solve the problem. In order to solve this problem, we identify in the problem that the mean is ?=80 and the standard deviation is ?=1. We
Section 4.6: Calculating Probabilities Using the Sampling Distribution of x
enter both of these values in the appropriate locations in the Normal Probability Distribution menu shown if Figure 4.12. We choose here to specify the Input Option Probability for: X > as the question we wish to solve is P(x > 82). We enter the value 82 in the appropriate space in the menu. We also enter an Output Title and finish by clicking OK. The output generated by PHStat is shown in Table 4.6.
Figure 4.12
Table 4.6
SBE Example 4.29  
Common Data  
Mean  80 
Standard Deviation  1 
Probability for X >  
X Value  82 
Z Value  2 
P(X>82)  0.0228 
We see from the output that the probability is 0.0228. The normal probability function within PHStat can be used to solve many different sampling distribution problems by changing the values of the mean, the standard deviation, and the value of X that is of interest in the problem.
The following three exercises have been taken from Statistics for Business and Economics for you to practice the techniques discussed in this chapter. The output generated from these problems is also given for you to check your work.
4.61 U.S. airlines average about 1.2 fatalities per month (Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2006). Assume the probability distribution for x, the number of fatalities per month, can be approximated by a Poisson probability distribution.
a. What is the probability that no fatalities will occur during any given month?
b. What is the probability that one fatality will occur during a month?
c. Find E(x) and the standard deviation of x.
PHStat Output
Poisson Probabilities
Data  
Average/Expected number of successes:  1.2  
Poisson Probabilities Table  
X  P(X)  P(<=X)  P(<X)  P(>X)  P(>=X)  
0  0.301194  0.301194  0.000000  0.698806  1.000000  
1  0.361433  0.662627  0.301194  0.337373  0.698806  
2  0.216860  0.879487  0.662627  0.120513  0.337373  
3  0.086744  0.966231  0.879487  0.033769  0.120513  
4  0.026023  0.992254  0.966231  0.007746  0.033769  
5  0.006246  0.998500  0.992254  0.001500  0.007746  
6  0.001249  0.999749  0.998500  0.000251  0.001500  
7  0.000214  0.999963  0.999749  0.000037  0.000251  
8  0.000032  0.999995  0.999963  0.000005  0.000037  
9  0.000004  0.999999  0.999995  0.000001  0.000005  
10  0.000001  1.000000  0.999999  0.000000  0.000001  
11  0.000000  ="top"> 1.000000  1.000000  0.000000  0.000000  
12  0.000000  1.000000  1.000000  0.000000  0.000000  
13  0.000000  1.000000  1.000000  0.000000  0.000000  
14  0.000000  1.000000  1.000000  0.000000  0.000000  
15  0.000000  1.000000  1.000000  0.000000  0.000000  
16  0.000000  1.000000  1.000000  0.000000  0.000000  
Chapter 4: Technology Lab
4.105 Personnel tests are designed to test a job applicant's cognitive and or physical abilities. An IQ test is an example of the former; a speed test involving the arrangement of pegs on a pegboard is an example of the latter (Cowling and James, The Essence of Personnel Management and Industrial Relations,1994). A particular dexterity test is administered nationwide by a private testing service. It is known that for all tests administered last year the distribution of scores was approximately normal with mean 75 and standard deviation 7.5.
a. A particular employer requires job candidates to score at least 80 on the dexterity test. Approximately what percentage of the test scores during the past year exceeded 80?
b. The testing service reported to a particular employer that one of its job candidate's scores fell at the 98^{th} percentile of the distribution (i.e., approximately 98% of the scores were lower than the candidate's, and only 2% were higher). What was the candidates score?
PHStat Output
Normal Probabilities  
Common Data  
Mean  75  
Standard Deviation  7.5  
Probability for X >  Find X and Z Given Cum. Pctage.  
X Value  80  Cumulative Percentage  98.00%  
Z Value  0.6666667  2.053748  
0.2525  90.40311 
4.154 According to Business Travel News (July 17, 2006), the average salary of a travel management professional is $98,500. Assume that the standard deviation of such salaries is $30,000. Consider a sample of 50 travel management professionals and let x represent the mean salary for the sample.
d. Find P( x > 89,500)
PHStat Output
Normal Probabilities  
Common Data  
Mean  98500 
Standard Deviation  4242.641 
Probability for X >  
X Value  89500 
Z Value  2.12132 
P(X>89500)  0.9831 
4.195 The Journal of Applied Psychology (Vol. 71, 1986) reported the results of an extensive survey conducted to determine the extent of whistle blowing among federal employees. Whistle blowing refers to an employee’s reporting of wrongdoing by coworkers. The survey found that about 5% of employees contacted had reported wrongdoing in the past 12 months. Assume that a sample of 25 employees in one agency are contacted, and let x be the number who have observed and reported wrongdoing in the last 12 months. Assume that the probability of whistle blowing is .05 for any federal employee over the past 12 months.
a. Find the mean and standard deviation of x.
b. Find the probability that at least five of the employees are whistle blowers.
PHStat Output
Binomial Probabilities Data Sample size 25 Probability of success 0.05 Statistics Mean 1.25 Variance 1.1875 Standard deviation 1.089725 Binomial Probabilities Table X  P(X)  P(<=X)  P(<X)  P(>X)  P(>=X) 
1  0.364986  0.642376  0.27739  0.357624  0.72261 
2  0.230518  0.872894  0.642376  0.127106  0.357624 
3  0.093016  0.965909  0.872894  0.034091  0.127106 
4 5 6  0.026926 0.005952 0.001044  0.992835 0.998787 0.999831  0.965909 0.992835 0.998787  0.007165 0.001213 0.000169  0.034091 
0.007165  
0.001213 
Chapter 5 Inferences Based on a Single Sample:
Estimation with Confidence Intervals
5.1 Introduction
Chapter 5 introduces the reader to estimating population parameters with confidence intervals. Two parameters, the population mean and the population proportion, are studied in the chapter. The reader is also introduced to the topic of sample size determination, as it follows nicely from the estimation material presented.
PHStat provides calculation of confidence intervals for both means and proportions. There are two procedures presented for estimating a population mean; when the population standard deviation is known, and when the population standard deviation is unknown. Since the population standard deviation is almost never known, we concentrate our work on the unknown standard deviation case. The confidence intervals for a population mean can be constructed using the actual data itself or from entering summary information into the appropriate menu. We give examples of both.
The confidence interval for a population proportion requires the user to enter both the number of successes and the sample size into the PHStat menu. There is no option that allows the user to specify a data set for PHStat to use when working with proportions.
Lastly, PHStat gives a procedure for determining the sample size necessary when estimating both means and proportions. The user must enter the various pieces of information required to estimate sample sizes and PHStat calculates the sample size required.
The following examples from Statistics for Business and Economics are solved using PHStat in this chapter:
Excel Companion Statistics for Business and Economics
Exercise Page Example 5.1 86 Example 5.2
5.2 90 Example 5.4
5.3 93 Example 5.6
5.4 94 Example 5.7
5.2 Estimation of a Population Mean  Sigma Unknown
When estimating a population mean, it is highly unlikely that the population standard deviation will be known. In such cases, it is necessary to estimate the value of the population standard deviation. We illustrate how PHStat can be used if such an estimation is desired.
To use the estimation tool within PHStat, open a new workbook and place the cursor in the upper left cell of the worksheet. Click on the PHStat menu at the top of the screen. Select the Confidence Intervals option from the choices available and then select the Estimate for the Mean, sigma unknown option from those listed. You should open the Estimate for the Mean, sigma unknown menu that looks like the one shown in Figure 5.1.
85
Figure 5.1
The user is required to enter the Confidence Level and then has the choice of how to enter the data, either using the Sample Statistics Known or Sample Statistics Unknown option. An Output Title can be optionally selected if the user so desires. Click OK to finish. We illustrate both choices of entering the data with the next example.
Exercise 5.1: We use Example 5.2 found in the Statistics for Business and Economics text.
Some quality control experiments require destructive sampling (i.e., the test to determine whether the item is defective destroys the item) in order to measure some particular characteristic of the product. The cost of destructive sampling often dictates small samples. For example, suppose a manufacturer of printers for personal computers wishes to estimate the mean number of characters printed before the printhead fails. Suppose the printer manufacturer tests n = 15 randomly selected printheads and records the number of characters printed until failure of each. These 15 measurements (in millions of characters) are listed in Table 5.1 below. Form a 99% confidence interval for the mean number of characters printed before the printhead fails.
Table 5.1
Number of Characters (In Millions) 1.13 1.32 1.18 1.25 1.36 1.33 0.92 1.48 1.2 1.43 1.07 1.29 1.55 0.85 1.22 
Section 5.2: Estimation of a Population Mean – Sigma Unknown 87
Solution:
We first solve Exercise 5.1 utilizing the sample statistics unknown option specified above. We open the data set SBE Example 5.2 from the accompanying disk. We enter the Confidence Level 99% in the menu and click on the Sample Statistics Unknown option (see Figure 5.2). We specify the range of the sample data in the worksheet in the appropriate space in the menu and add the title, SBE Example 5.2. We click OK to finish. The output generated by PHStat is shown in Table 5.2
Figure 5.2
Table 5.2
SBE Example 5.2  
Data  
Sample Standard Deviation  0.19316413 
Sample Mean  1.24 
Sample Size  15 
Confidence Level  99% 
Intermediate Calculations  
Standard Error of the Mean  0.049874764 
Degrees of Freedom  14 
t Value  2.976848918 
Interval Half Width  0.148469637 
Confidence Interval  
Interval Lower Limit  1.09 
Interval Upper Limit  1.39 
We see from the output that the confidence interval for the population mean stretches from 1.09 to 1.39. We now utilize the calculated sample mean and standard deviation found in the Statistics for Business and Economics text for Example 5.2 to illustrate how the estimation menu can be used when the sample statistics are known.
Solution:
We enter the Confidence Level 99% in the menu and click on the Sample Statistics Know option (see Figure 5.3). We specify the Sample Size, Sample Mean, and Sample Standard Deviation in the appropriate locations in the menu. Again, we opt to add the title, SBE Example 5.2. We click OK to finish. The output generated by PHStat is shown in Table 5.3.
Section 5.2: Estimation of a Population Mean – Sigma Unknown 89
Figure 5.3
Table 5.3
SBE Example 5.2  
Data  
Sample Standard Deviation  0.19316413 
Sample Mean  ="92" valign="top"> 1.24 
Sample Size  15 
Confidence Level  99% 
Intermediate Calculations  
Standard Error of the Mean  0.049874764 
Degrees of Freedom  14 
t Value  2.976848918 
Interval Half Width  0.148469637 
Confidence Interval  
Interval Lower Limit  1.09 
Interval Upper Limit  1.39 
We see that both techniques lead to the same confidence interval for the population mean.
5.3 Estimation of a Population Proportion
When estimating a population proportion, it is necessary for the user to know both the sample size and the number of successes in the sample. These values must be keyed into their appropriate places in order for PHStat to generate a confidence interval for a single population proportion.
To use the estimation tool within PHStat, open a new workbook and place the cursor in the upper left cell of the worksheet. Click on the PHStat menu at the top of the screen. Select the Confidence Intervals option from the choices available and then select the Estimate for the Proportion option from those listed. You should open the Estimate for the Proportion menu that looks like the one shown in Figure 5.4.
Figure 5.4
The user is required to enter the Sample Size, the Number of Successes, and the Confidence Level. An Output Title can be optionally selected if the user so desires. Click OK to finish. We illustrate estimating a population proportion with the next example.
Exercise 5.2: We use Example 5.4 from the Statistics for Business and Economics text.
Many public polling agencies conduct surveys to determine the current consumer sentiment concerning the state of the economy. For example, the Bureau of Economic and Business Research (BEBR) at the University of Florida conducts quarterly surveys to gauge consumer sentiment in the Sunshine State. Suppose that BEBR randomly samples 484 consumers and finds that 257 are optimistic about the state of the economy. Use a 90% confidence interval to estimate the proportion of all consumers in Florida who are optimistic about the state of the economy.
Solution:
We first identify that the sample size is n = 484, the number of successes is X = 257 and the confidence level is 90%. We enter the Sample Size, Number of Successes, and the Confidence Level in the menu as shown in Figure 5.5. We enter the title, SBE Example 5.4. We click OK to finish. The output generated by PHStat is shown in Table 5.5.
Section 5.3: Estimation of a Population Proportion 91
Figure 5.5
Table 5.4
SBE Example 5.4
Data  
Sample Size  484 
Number of Successes  257 
Confidence Level  90% 
Intermediate Calculations  
Sample Proportion  0.530991736 
Z Value  1.64485348 
Standard Error of the Proportion  0.022683572 
Interval Half Width  0.037311153 
Confidence Interval  
Interval Lower Limit  0.493680583 
Interval Upper Limit  0.568302888 
We see from the output that the confidence interval for the population proportion stretches from 0.4937 to 0.5683. Confidence intervals for other population proportions can be calculated in a similar manner simply by changing the values of the sample size, number of successes, and the confidence level.
5.4 Determining the Sample Size
Section 5.4 in the Statistics for Business and Economics text offers the reader a technique to determine the sample size necessary when estimating both means and proportions. PHStat offers an easy method for determining the sample size. Click on the PHStat menu at the top of the screen and select the Sample Size option. You then have the choice of selecting either the Determination for the Mean or the Determination for the Proportion option. Both menus are shown below in Figure 5.6.
Figure 5.6
We begin by taking a look at sample size determination when estimating a population mean.
Section 5.4: Determining the Sample Size 93
5.4.1 Determining the Sample Size for Means
The sample size determination for means menu requires the user to know the values of the Population Standard Deviation (or have an estimate of it), the Sampling Error, and the desired Confidence Level. These values are entered in the menu at the appropriate locations, a Title is added if desired, and the user clicks on OK to finish. We illustrate this procedure with an example.
Exercise 5.3: We use Example 5.6 from the Statistics for Business and Economics text.
The manufacturer of official NFL footballs uses a machine to inflate its new balls to a pressure of 13.5 pounds. When the machine is properly calibrated, the mean inflation pressure is 13.5 pounds, but uncontrollable factors cause the pressures of individual footballs to vary randomly from about 13.3 to 13.7 pounds. For quality control purposes, the manufacturer wishes to estimate the mean inflation pressure to within .025 pound of its true value with a 99% confidence. What sample size should be used?
Solution:
We note in the solution to the problem on page 386 in the text, the estimate of the population standard deviation is found using s ? Range/4 = .4/4 =.1. In addition, we see that the sampling error is stated at .025 and the confidence level is 99%. We enter these values in the Determination for the Mean menu as shown if Figure 5.7. We specify an Output Title and click OK. The PHStat output is shown in Table 5.5.
Figure 5.7
Table 5.5
SBE Example 5.6  
Data  
Population Standard Deviation  0.1 
Sampling Error  0.025 
Confidence Level  99% 
Intermediate Calculations  
Z Value  2.57583134 
Calculated Sample Size  106.1585133 
Result  
Sample Size Needed  107 
We find the sample size needed is n = 107. We now illustrate how to use this procedure when working with population proportions.
5.4.2 Determining the Sample Size for Proportions
The sample size determination for proportions menu requires the user to know the values of Estimate of True Proportion, the Sampling Error, and the desired Confidence Level. These values are entered in the menu at the appropriate locations, a Title is added if desired, and the user clicks on OK to finish. We illustrate this procedure with an example.
Exercise 5.4: We use Example 5.7 from the Statistics for Business and Economics text.
A cellular telephone manufacturer that entered the postregulation market too quickly has an initial problem with excessive customer complaints and consequent returns of the cell phones for repair or replacement. The manufacturer wants to determine the magnitude of the problem in order to estimate its warranty liability. How many cellular telephones should the company randomly sample from its warehouse and check in order to estimate the fraction defective, p, to within .01 with 90% confidence?
Solution:
We note in the solution to the problem on page 320 that the estimate of the population proportion is determined to be the value .1. In addition, we see that the sampling error is stated at .01 and the confidence level is 90%. We enter these values in the Determination for the Proportion menu as shown if Figure 5.8. We specify an Output Title and click OK. The PHStat output is shown in Table 5.6.
Section 5.4: Determining the Sample Size 95
Figure 5.8
Table 5.6
SBE Example 5.7
Data  
Estimate of True Proportion  0.1 
Sampling Error  0.01 
Confidence Level  90% 
Intermediate Calculations  
Z Value  1.64485348 
Calculated Sample Size  2434.988661 
Result  
Sample Size Needed  2435 
We find the sample size needed is n = 2,435. Note that the sample size here differs slightly from the sample size found in the text due to the increase accuracy of the Z value that is used by PHStat (Z = 1.644853 vs. Z = 1.645).
Technology Lab
The following exercise from the Statistics for Business and Economics text is given for you to practice the normal procedure that is available within PHStat. Included with the exercise is the PHStat output that was generated to solve the problem.
5.94 A company is interested in estimating ?, the mean number of days of sick leave taken by all its employees. The firm's statistician selects at random 100 personnel files and notes the number of sick days taken by each employee. The following sample statistics are computed:
x = 12.2 days, s = 10 days.
a. Estimate ? using a 90% confidence interval.
b. How many personnel files would the statistician have to select in order to estimate ? to within 2 days with a 99% confidence interval?
PHStat Output


5.102 According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, one of every 80 American workers (i.e., 1.3%) is fired or laid off. Are employees with cancer fired or laid off at the same rate? To answer this question, Working Women magazine and Amgen  a company that makes drugs to lessen chemotherapy side effects  conducted a telephone survey of 100 cancer survivors who worked while undergoing treatment (Tampa Tribune, Sept. 25, 1996). Of these 100 cancer patients, 7 were fired or laid off due to their illness.
a. Construct a 90% confidence interval for the true percentage of all cancer patients who are fired or laid off due to their illness.
Chapter 5: Technology Lab 97
PHStat Output
SBE Exercise 5.102a
Data  
Sample Size  100 
Number of Successes  7 
Confidence Level  90% 
Intermediate Calculations  
Sample Proportion  0.07 
Z Value  1.64485348 
Standard Error of the Proportion  0.025514702 
Interval Half Width  0.041967946 
Confidence Interval  
Interval Lower Limit  0.028032054 
Interval Upper Limit  0.111967946 
5.61 A gigantic warehouse located in Tampa, Florida, stores approximately 60 million empty aluminum beer and soda cans. Recently, a fire occurred at the warehouse. The smoke from the fire contaminated many of the cans with blackspot, rendering them unusable. A University of South Florida statistician was hired by the insurance company to estimate the true proportion of cans in the warehouse that were contaminated by the fire. How many aluminum cans should be randomly sampled to estimate the true proportion to within .02 with 90% confidence?
PHStat Output
SBE Exercise 5.61  
Data  
Estimate of True Proportion  0.5 
Sampling Error  0.02 
Confidence Level  90% 
Intermediate Calculations  
Z Value  1.64485348 
Calculated Sample Size  1690.964348 
Result  
Sample Size Needed  1691 
Chapter 6 Inferences Based on a Single Sample:
Tests of Hypothesis
6.1 Introduction
Chapter 6 introduces the reader to the concepts of hypothesis testing. The general theory and concepts of the test of hypothesis are then examined for inferences based on a single sample. Tests for both a single population mean and a single population proportion are discussed in Chapter 6. In addition, the observed significance level of a test of hypothesis is explained and demonstrated in several examples.
PHStat provides calculation of tests of hypothesis for both means and proportions. There are two procedures presented for testing a population mean; when the population standard deviation is known, and when the population standard deviation is unknown. Since the population standard deviation is almost never known, we concentrate our work on the unknown standard deviation case. The test of hypothesis for a population mean can be constructed using the actual data itself or from entering summary information into the appropriate menu. We give examples of both.
The test of hypothesis for a population proportion requires the user to enter both the number of successes and the sample size into the PHStat menu. There is no option that allows the user to specify a data set for PHStat to use when working with proportions.
The following examples from Statistics for Business and Economics are solved using PHStat in this chapter:
Excel Companion  Statistics for Business and Economics 
Exercise Page  Example 
6.1 99  Example 6.5 
6.2 102  Example 6.7 
6.2 Tests of Hypothesis of a Population Mean  Sigma Unknown
When testing a population mean, it is highly unlikely that the population standard deviation will be known. In such cases, it is necessary to estimate the value of the population standard deviation. We illustrate how PHStat can be used if such a test of hypothesis is desired.
To use the test of hypothesis tool within PHStat, open a new workbook and place the cursor in the upper left cell of the worksheet. Click on the PHStat menu at the top of the screen. Select the OneSample Tests option from the choices available and then select the t Test for the Mean, sigma unknown option from those listed. You should open the t Test for the Mean, sigma unknown menu that looks like the one shown in Figure 6.1.
98
Section 6.2: Tests of Hypothesis of a Population Mean  Sigma Unknown 99
Figure 6.1
The user is required to enter the Null Hypothesis, a Level of Significance, and the direction of the test in the Test Option. The user then has the choice of how to enter the data, either using the Sample Statistics Known or Sample Statistics Unknown option. An Output Title can be optionally selected if the user so desires. Click OK to finish. We illustrate both choices of entering the data with the next example.
Exercise 6.1: We use Example 6.5 found in the Statistics for Business and Economics text.
A major car manufacturer wants to test a new engine to determine whether it meets new air pollution standards. The mean emission ? of all engines of this type must be less than 20 parts per million of carbon. Ten engines are manufactured for testing purposes, and the emission level of each is determined. The data are shown in Table 6.1 below. Do the data supply sufficient evidence to allow the manufacturer to conclude that this type of engine meets the pollution standard? Assume that the production process is stable and the manufacturer is willing to risk a Type I error with probability ? = .01.
Table 6.1
Emission Level of Engine
15.6
16.2
22.5
20.5
16.4
19.4
16.6
17.9
12.7 13.9
Solution:
We first solve Exercise 6.1 utilizing the sample statistics unknown option specified above. We open the data set SBE Example 6.5 from the accompanying disk. We enter the Null Hypothesis value of 20 parts per millionin the menu, enter a .01 Level of Significance, and select the LowerTail Test option. We then click on the Sample Statistics Unknown option (see Figure 6.2). We specify the range of the sample data in the worksheet in the appropriate space in the menu and add the title, SBE Example 6.5. We click OK to finish. The output generated by PHStat is shown in Table 6.2 Figure 6.2 Table 6.2
SBE Example 6.5  
Data  
Null Hypothesis ?=  20 
Level of Significance  0.01 
Sample Size  10 
Sample Mean  17.17 
Sample Standard Deviation  2.981442604 
Intermediate Calculations  
Standard Error of the Mean  0.942814934 
Degrees of Freedom  9 
tTest Statistic  3.001649526 
LowerTail Test  
Lower Critical Value  2.821434464 
pValue  0.007458207 
Reject the null hypothesis 
We see in the printout that the test statistic is reported to be t = 3.002 and the pvalue for the test is reported to be p = 0.00746. Both of these values indicate that the null hypothesis should be rejected at ? = .01. We now utilize the calculated sample mean and standard deviation found in the printout above for Example 6.5 to illustrate how the test of hypothesis menu can be used when the sample statistics are known.
Solution:
We enter the Null Hypothesis value of 20 parts per million, the .01 Level of Significance, and the LowerTail Test just like we did in the last example. This time, however, we specify the Sample Size, Sample Mean, and Sample Standard Deviation in the appropriate locations in the Sample Statistics Known menu (see Figure 6.3). Again, we opt to add the title, SBE Example 6.5. We click OK to finish. The output generated by PHStat is shown in Table 6.3.
Section 6.3: Tests of Hypothesis of a Population Proportion 101
Figure 6.3 Table 6.3

We see that both techniques lead to the same test of hypothesis results when testing the population mean.
6.3 Tests of Hypothesis of a Population Proportion
When testing a population proportion, it is necessary for the user to know both the sample size and the number of successes in the sample. These values must be keyed into their appropriate places in order for PHStat to generate a confidence interval for a single population proportion.
To use the estimation tool within PHStat, open a new workbook and place the cursor in the upper left cell of the worksheet. Click on the PHStat menu at the top of the screen. Select the OneSample Tests option from the choices available and then select the Z Test for the Proportion option from those listed. You should open the Z Test for the Proportion menu that looks like the one shown in Figure 6.4.
Figure 6.4
The user is required to enter the Null Hypothesis value, the Level of Significance, the Number of Successes, the Sample Size, and the direction of the test to be conducted in the TestOptions area of the menu. An Output Title can be optionally selected if the user so desires. Click OK to finish. We illustrate estimating a population proportion with the next example.
Exercise 6.2: We use Example 6.7 from the Statistics for Business and Economics text.
The reputations (and hence sales) of many businesses can be severely damaged by shipments of manufactured items that contain a large percentage of defectives. For example, a manufacturer of alkaline batteries may want to be reasonably certain that fewer than 5% of its batteries are defective. Suppose 300 batteries are randomly selected from a very large shipment; each is tested and 10 defective batteries are found. Does this provide sufficient evidence for the manufacturer to conclude that the fraction defective in the entire shipment is less than .05? Use ? = .01.
Solution:
We first identify that the sample size is n = 300, the number of successes is X = 10, and the level of significance is .01. We want to use the null hypothesis value of .05 and conduct a lowertail test. We enter the Null Hypothesis value of .05, the Level of Significance of .01, the Number of Successes (10), and the Sample Size (300) in their appropriate locations on the menu (see Figure 6.5). We then select the LowerTail Test from the Test Options area of the menu. We enter the title, SBE Example 6.7. We click OK to finish. The output generated by PHStat is shown in Table 6.4.
Section 6.3: Tests of Hypothesis of a Population Proportion 103
Figure 6.5 Table 6.4

We see from the output that the test of hypothesis cannot be rejected when testing at ? = .01. There is insufficient evidence to indicate that the population proportion of defective batteries is less than 5. Tests of hypothesis for other population proportions can be conducted in a similar manner simply by changing the values of the sample size, number of successes, the level of significance, the null hypothesis and the direction of the test.
Technology Lab
The following exercises from the Statistics for Business and Economics text are given for you to practice the procedures covered in the text that are available within PHStat. Included with the exercises are the PHStat outputs that were generated to solve the problems.
6.109 Creative Good, a New York consulting firm, claimed that 39% of shoppers fail in their attempts to purchase merchandise online because Web sites are too complex (Forbes, Dec. 13,1999). Another consulting firm asked a random sample of 60 online shoppers to each test a different randomly selected ecommerce Web site. Only 15 reported sufficient frustration with their sites to deter making a purchase.
a. Do these data provide sufficient evidence to reject the claim by Creative Good? Test using ? = .01.
b. Find and interpret the observed significance level of the test and interpret it in the context of the problem.
PHStat Output
SBE Exercise 6.109  
Data  
Null Hypothesis p=  0.39 
Level of Significance  0.01 
Number of Successes  15 
Sample Size  60 
Intermediate Calculations  
Sample Proportion  0.25 
Standard Error  0.062968246 
Z Test Statistic   2.223342859 
LowerTail Test  
Lower Critical Value  2.326347 
pValue  0.0130963 
Do not reject the null hypothesis 
6.126 One way of evaluating a measuring instrument is to repeatedly measure the same item and compare the average of these measurements to the item's known measured value. The difference is used to assess the instrument's accuracy (Quality Progress, Jan. 1993). To evaluate a particular Metlar scale, an item whose weight is known to be 16.01 ounces is weighed five times by the same operator. The measurements, in ounces, are as follows:
15.99 16.00 15.97 16.01 15.96
a. In a statistical sense, does the average measurement differ from 16.01? Conduct the appropriate hypothesis test. What does your analysis suggest about the accuracy of the instrument?
Chapter 6: Technology Lab 105 PHStat Output
SBE Exercise 6.126  
Data  
Null Hypothesis ?=  16.01 
Level of Significance  0.05 
Sample Size  5 
Sample Mean  15.986 
Sample Standard Deviation  0.020736441 
Intermediate Calculations  
Standard Error of the Mean  0.009273618 
Degrees of Freedom  4 
tTest Statistic  2.587986557 
TwoTail Test  
Lower Critical Value  2.776450856 
Upper Critical Value  2.776450856 
pValue  0.060812856 
Do not reject the null hypothesis 
Chapter 7 Inferences Based on Two Samples:
Confidence Intervals and Tests of Hypothesis
7.1 Introduction
Chapter 7 introduces the reader to two sample problems using both the estimation and test of hypothesis techniques discussed in Chapters 5 and 6. Three types of parameters, population means, population proportions, and population variances, are studied in the chapter. The reader is also introduced to the topic of sample size determination, as it follows very nicely from the estimation material presented.
PHStat provides calculation of tests of hypotheses for comparing population means, population proportions, and population variances. PHStat provides only an independent comparison of population means. No paired difference analysis currently exists in the program. PHStat also does not provide any tool for calculating the corresponding confidence intervals for these parameters. Finally, no sample size determination techniques are available for any of the parameters presented in Chapter 7.
Each of the test of hypothesis techniques presented in PHStat require the user to have available the summary statistics of the data. Whether the user is working with means, proportions, or variances, these statistics are entered into menus to generate the desired test of hypothesis output. The following examples from Statistics for Business and Economics are solved using PHStat in this chapter:
Excel Companion Statistics for Business and Economics Exercise Page Example
7.1 107 Example 7.2
7.2 110 Example 7.6
7.3 113 Example 7.10
7.2 Tests For Differences in Two Means
The Statistics for Business and Economics text offers two techniques for comparing two population means, the independent sampling and matched pairs sampling techniques. PHStat allows the user to perform a test of hypothesis when the data has been collected using two random, independent samples. To use the test of hypothesis tool within PHStat, open a new workbook and place the cursor in the upper left cell of the worksheet. Click on the PHStat menu at the top of the screen. Select the TwoSample Tests option from the choices available and then select the t Test for Differences in Two Means option from those listed. You should open the t Test for differences in Two Means menu that looks like the one shown in Figure 7.1.
The user is required to enter the Hypothesized Difference, a Level of Significance, the Summary Statistics from both the samples collected, and the direction of the test in the Test Option. An Output Title can be optionally selected if the user so desires. Click OK to finish. We illustrate the test with the next example.
106
Section 7.2: Tests for Differences in Two Means 107
Figure 7.1
Exercise 7.1: We use Example 7.2 found in the Statistics for Business and Economics text.
In recent years, the United States and Japan have engaged in intense negotiations regarding restrictions on trade between the two countries. One of the claims made repeatedly by U.S. officials is that many Japanese manufacturers price their goods higher in Japan than in the United States, in effect subsidizing low prices in the United States by extremely high prices in Japan. According to the U.S. argument, Japan accomplishes this by keeping competitive U.S. goods from reaching the Japanese marketplace.
An economist decided to test the hypothesis that higher retail prices are being charged for Japanese automobiles in Japan than in the United States. She obtained random samples of 50 retail sales in the United States and 30 retail sales in Japan over the same time period and for the same model of automobile, converted the Japanese sales prices from yen to dollars using current conversion rates, and obtained the summary information shown in Table 7.1. Compare the mean retail prices for the two countries using a test of hypothesis. Use ? = .5.
Table 7.1
U.S. Sales Japan Sales
Sample Size 50 50
Sample Mean $16,596.00 $17,236.00
Sample Standard Deviation $ 1,981.44 $ 1,974.093
Solution:
We specify a Hypothesized Difference value of 0 (because we are comparing the two means to determine if they differ), a .05 Level of Significance, and the LowerTail Test (to determine if the Japanese mean is higher than the U.S. mean) option. We specify the Sample Size, Sample Mean, and Sample Standard Deviation for both samples in the appropriate locations in the t Test for Differences in Two Means menu (see Figure 7.2). We opt to add the title, SBE Example 7.2. We click OK to finish. The output generated by PHStat is shown in Table 7.2.
Figure 7.2
Section 7.3: Tests for Differences in Two Proportions 109Table 7.2
SBE Example 7.2  
Data  
Hypothesized Difference  0 
Level of Significance  0.05 
Population 1 Sample  
Sample Size  50 
Sample Mean  16596 
Sample Standard Deviation  1981.44 
Population 2 Sample  
Sample Size  50 
Sample Mean  17236 
Sample Standard Deviation  1974.093 
Intermediate Calculations  
Population 1 Sample Degrees of Freedom  49 
Population 2 Sample Degrees of Freedom  49 
Total Degrees of Freedom  98 
Pooled Variance  3911574 
Difference in Sample Means  640 
tTest Statistic  1.61798 
LowerTail Test  
Lower Critical Value  1.66055 
pValue  0.05444 
Do not reject the null hypothesis 
Both the test statistic and pvalue generated on the printout result in the fail to reject H_{o} conclusion. By changing the summary statistics above, tests can be performed for any independent samples comparison of population means.
7.3 Tests For Differences in Two Proportions
The Statistics for Business and Economics text describes the technique for comparing two population proportions. PHStat allows the user to perform a test of hypothesis when comparing two proportions. To use the test of hypothesis tool within PHStat, open a new workbook and place the cursor in the upper left cell of the worksheet. Click on the PHStat menu at the top of the screen. Select the TwoSample Tests option from the choices available and then select the Z Test for Differences in Two Proportions option from those listed. You should open the Z Test for differences in Two Proportions menu that looks like the one shown in Figure 7.3.
The user is required to enter the Hypothesized Difference, a Level of Significance, the Sample Size and Number of Successes from both the samples collected, and the direction of the test in the Test Option. An Output Title can be optionally selected if the user so desires. Click OK to finish. We illustrate the test with the next example.
Figure 7.3
Exercise 7.2: We use Example 7.6 found in the Statistics for Business and Economics text.
A consumer advocacy group wants to determine whether there is a difference between the proportions of the two leading automobile models that need major repairs (more than $500) within two years of their purchase. A sample of 400 twoyear owners of model 1 is contacted, and a sample of 500 twoyear owners of model 2 is contacted. The numbers x_{1} and x_{2} of owners who report that their cars needed major repairs within the first two years are 53 and 78, respectively. Test the null hypothesis that no difference exists between the proportions in populations 1 and 2 needing major repairs against the alternative that a difference does exist. Use ? = .10.
Solution:
We enter the Hypothesized Difference value of 0 (because we are comparing the two proportions to determine if they differ, the .10 Level of Significance, and the TwoTail Test (to determine if a difference exists) option. We specify the Number of Successes and the Sample for both samples in the appropriate locations in the Z Test for Differences in Two Proportions menu (see Figure 7.4). We opt to add the title, SBE Example 7.6. We click OK to finish. The output generated by PHStat is shown in Table 7.3.
Section 7.3: Tests for Differences in Two Proportions 111
Figure 7.4
Both the test statistic and pvalue generated on the printout result in the fail to reject H_{o} conclusion. By changing the summary statistics above, tests can be performed for any comparison of population proportions.
Table 7.3
SBE Example 7.6  
Data  
Hypothesized Difference  0 
Level of Significance  0.1 
Group 1  
Number of Successes  53 
Sample Size  400 
Group 2  
Number of Successes  78 
Sample Size  500 
Intermediate Calculations  
Group 1 Proportion  0.1325 
Group 2 Proportion  0.156 
Difference in Two Proportions  0.0235 
Average Proportion  0.145555556 
Z Test Statistic  0.993356864 
TwoTail Test  
Lower Critical Value  1.644853476 
Upper Critical Value  1.644853476 
pValue  0.320536082 
Do not reject the null hypothesis 
7.4 Tests For Differences in Two Variances
The Statistics for Business and Economics text describes the technique for comparing two population variances. PHStat allows the user to perform a test of hypothesis when comparing two variances. To use the test of hypothesis tool within PHStat, open a new workbook and place the cursor in the upper left cell of the worksheet. Click on the PHStat menu at the top of the screen. Select the TwoSample Tests option from the choices available and then select the F Test for Differences in Two Variances option from those listed. You should open the F Test for differences in Two Variances menu that looks like the one shown in Figure 7.5.
The user is required to enter the Level of Significance, the Sample Size and the Sample Standard Deviation from both the samples collected, and the direction of the test in the Test Option. An Output Title can be optionally selected if the user so desires. Click OK to finish. We illustrate the test with the next example.
Section 7.4: Tests for Differences in Two Variations 113
Figure 7.5
Exercise 7.3: We use Example 7.10 found in the Statistics for Business and Economics text.
A manufacturer of paper products wants to compare the variation in daily production levels at two paper mills. Independent random samples of days are selected from each mill and the production levels (in units) recorded. The following summary information was obtained:
Mill 1 Mill 2 n 13 18
Mean 26.31 19.89
Std. Dev. 8.36 4.85
Do the data provide sufficient evidence to indicate a difference in the variability of production levels at the two paper mills? (Use ? = .10). Solution:
We enter the .10 Level of Significance, and the TwoTail Test (to determine if a difference exists) option. We specify the Sample Size and the Standard deviation for both samples in the appropriate locations in the F Test for Differences in Two Variances menu (see Figure 7.6). We opt to add the title, SBE Example 7.10. We click OK to finish. The output generated by PHStat is shown in Table 7.4.
Figure 7.6
Table 7.4
SBE Example 7.10  
Data  
Level of Significance  0.05 
Population 1 Sample  
Sample Size  13 
Sample Standard Deviation  8.36 
Population 2 Sample  
Sample Size  18 
Sample Standard Deviation  4.85 
Intermediate Calculations  
FTest Statistic  2.971181 
Population 1 Sample Degrees of Freedom  12 
Population 2 Sample Degrees of Freedom  17 
TwoTail Test  
Lower Critical Value  0.319627 
Upper Critical Value  2.824891 
pValue  0.040138 
Reject the null hypothesis 
Both the test statistic and pvalue generated on the printout result in the reject H_{o} conclusion. By changing the summary statistics above, tests can be performed for any comparison of population variances.
Chapter 7: Technology Lab 115
Technology Lab
The following exercises from the Statistics for Business and Economics text are given for you to practice the procedures covered in the text that are available within PHStat. Included with the exercises are the PHStat outputs that were generated to solve the problems.
7.112 The way corporations raise money for expansion is to issue bonds, loan agreements to repay the purchaser a specified amount with a fixed rate of interest paid periodically over the life of the bond. The sale of bonds is usually handled by an underwriting firm. Does it pay for companies to shop around for an underwriter? The reason for the question is that the price of a bond may rise or fall after is issuance. Therefore, whether a corporation receives the market price for a bond depends on the skill of its underwriter (Radcliffe, 1994). The mean change in the prices of 27 bonds handled over a 12month period by one underwriter and in the prices of 23 bonds handled by another are shown
Underwriter 1  Underwriter 2  
Sample size  27  23 
Sample Mean  0.0491  0.0307 
Sample Variance  0.0098  0.002465 
a. Do the data provide sufficient evidence to indicate a difference in the mean change in bond prices handled by the two underwriters? Test using ? = .05
PHStat Output
SBE Exercise 7.112  
Data  
Hypothesized Difference  0 
Level of Significance  0.05 
Population 1 Sample  
Sample Size  27 
Sample Mean  0.0491 
Sample Standard Deviation  0.098995 
Population 2 Sample  
Sample Size  23 
Sample Mean  0.0307 
Sample Standard Deviation  0.049649 
Intermediate Calculations  
Population 1 Sample Degrees of Freedom  26 
Population 2 Sample Degrees of Freedom  22 
Total Degrees of Freedom  48 
Pooled Variance  0.006438 
Difference in Sample Means  0.0184 
tTest Statistic  0.80816 
TwoTail Test  
Lower Critical Value  2.01063 
Upper Critical Value  2.010634 
pValue  0.422985 
Do not reject the null hypothesis 
7.55 Industrial Marketing Management (Vol. 25, 1996) published a study that examined the demographics, decisionmaking roles, and time demands of product managers. Independent samples of n_{1} = 93 consumer/commercial product managers and n_{2} = 212 industrial product managers took part in the study. In the consumer/commercial group, 40% of the product managers are 40 years of age or older; in the industrial group, 54% are 40 or more years old. Make an inference about the difference between the true proportions of consumer/commercial and industrial product managers who are at least 40 years old. Justify your choice of method
(confidence interval or hypothesis test) and ? level. Do industrial product managers tend to be older than consumer/commercial product managers?
Chapter 7: Technology Lab 117PHStat Output
SBE Exercise 7.55  
Data  
Hypothesized Difference  0 
Level of Significance  0.05 
Group 1  
Number of Successes  37 
Sample Size  93 
Group 2  
Number of Successes  114 
Sample Size  212 
Intermediate Calculations  
Group 1 Proportion  0.397849462 
Group 2 Proportion  0.537735849 
Difference in Two Proportions  0.139886387 
Average Proportion  0.495081967 
Z Test Statistic  2.249499716 
LowerTail Test  
Lower Critical Value  1.644853476 
pValue  0.012240321 
Reject the null hypothesis 
7.83 The American Educational Research Journal (Fall, 1998) published a study to compare the mathematics achievement test scores of male and female students. The researchers hypothesized that the distribution of test scores for males is more variable than the corresponding distribution for females. Use the summary information in the table to test this claim at ? = .01.
Males  Females  
Sample size  1,764  1,739 
Mean  48.9  48.4 
Standard deviation  12.96  11.85 
PHStat Output
SBE Exercise 7.83  
Data  
Level of Significance  0.01 
Population 1 Sample  
Sample Size  1764 
Sample Standard Deviation  12.96 
Population 2 Sample  
Sample Size  1739 
Sample Standard Deviation  11.85 
Intermediate Calculations  
FTest Statistic  1.196116007 
Population 1 Sample Degrees of Freedom  1763 
Population 2 Sample Degrees of Freedom  1738 
UpperTail Test  
Upper Critical Value  1.117699711 
pValue  0.0000912 
Reject the null hypothesis 
Chapter 8
Design of Experiments and Analysis of Variance
8.1 Introduction
Chapter 8 introduces the topics of design of experiments and analysis of variance (ANOVA) to the reader. The concept of the designed experiment is explained and the completely randomized and factorial designs are covered in the text. The goal of analysis of variance is to identify factors that contribute information to the response variable of interest. The combination of levels of the various factors are called treatments and the analysis of variance procedures discussed in the text attempt to detect differences in the mean response variable for the various treatments. Once detected, the text presents several methods of comparing the multiple means of the experiment.
PHStat does not offer any analysis of variance procedures. However, Excel offers two analysis of variance procedures that can be used for the completely randomized and factorial designs. These data analysis tools are very easy to implement. Excel does not, however, offer a followup tool to compare treatment means that have been determined to differ. The Excel user must take the summary results from the two analyses and calculate the multiple comparison procedures by hand.
We will use the chapter examples that are given in the text to illustrate the model building and testing methods discussed above. The following examples from Statistics for Business and Economics are solved with Microsoft Excel® in this chapter.
Excel Companion Statistics for Business and Economics Exercise Page Example
8.1 119 Example 8.3 8.2 122 Example 8.9
8.2 The Completely Randomized Design
The goal of analysis of variance is to compare the mean responses of the various treatments in an experimental design, where the treatments are the combinations of the levels of all the factors involved in the design. The simplest of all experimental designs involves using a single factor to compare values of a response variable. Since there is only one factor in the design, the various levels of the factor are the treatments in the design. The goal is to compare the means of the response variable for those treatments. This experimental design is the completely randomized design and can be analyzed in Excel using the Anova: Single Factor data analysis tool. We illustrate with the following example.
Exercise 8.1: We use Example 8.4 found in the Statistics for Business and Economics text.
Suppose the United States Golf Association (USGA) wants to compare the mean distances associated with four different brands of golf balls when struck with a driver. A completely randomized design is employed, with Iron Byron, the USGA’s robotic golfer, using a driver to hit a random sample of 10 balls of each brand in a random sequence. The distance is recorded for each hit, and the results are shown in Table 15.1, organized by brand.
119
a. Set up the test to compare the mean distances for the four brands. Use ? = .10.
b. Use Excel to obtain the test statistic and pvalue. Interpret the results.
Table 8.1
Brand A  Brand B  Brand C  Brand D 
251.2  263.2  269.7  251.6 
245.1  262.9  263.2  248.6 
248.0  265.0  277.5  249.4 
251.1  254.5  267.4  242.0 
260.5  264.3  270.5  246.5 
250.0  257.0  265.5  251.3 
253.9  262.8  270.7  261.8 
244.6  264.4  272.9  249.0 
254.6  260.6  275.6  247.1 
248.8  255.9  266.5  245.9 
Solution:
We begin by opening the Excel file SBE Example 8.4. Click on the Tools menu located at the top of the Excel worksheet. Select the Data Analysis option from within the Tools menu and highlight the Anova: Single Factor option (see Figure 8.1). Click OK.
Figure 8.1
Either type or click the rows and columns where the input data is located and enter this information into the Input Range area of the Anova: Single Factor menu (see Figure 8.2). Select the manner in which the data is grouped (Columns or Rows) and give a level of significance in the Alpha cell of the menu (e.g., .10). Specify the location of the computed output by selecting either the Output Range, New Worksheet Ply, or New Workbook option, and entering the corresponding cell or name. Click OK.
Section 8.2: The Completely Randomized Design 121
Figure 8.2
The ANOVA printout generated for the completely randomized design has two main components (see Table 8.2). The first component is a statistical summary of the various treatments in the analysis. For each of the four brands of balls, Excel gives some summary information concerning the distances achieved by each. This information will be more useful after studying the multiple comparison of means material in Section 8.3.
Table 8.2
Anova: Single Factor SUMMARY  
Groups Count  Sum  Average  Variance  
Brand A 10  2507.8  250.78  22.42177778  
Brand B 10  2610.6  261.06  14.94711111  
Brand C 10  2699.5  269.95  20.25833333  
Brand D 10  2493.2  249.32  27.07288889  
ANOVA  
Source of Variation SS  df  MS  F  Pvalue  F crit 
Between Groups 2794.389  3  931.462917  43.98874592  3.97311E12 2.242607877  
Within Groups 762.301  36  21.1750278  
Total 3556.69  39 
The second component is called the analysis of variance table and is where the pertinent testing information will be found. To test whether the mean distances of the four means differ, we use the test statistic and pvalue found in the Brand row of the printout (labeled on the Excel printout as the Between Groups row). We see that the test statistic is F = 43.9887 and the pvalue is p ? 0. Compare these values to the values found in the Excel printout found in the text. We refer you to the text for further information regarding the interpretation of these values.
8.3 The Factorial Design
The next step in the experimental design process is to add a second factor to the design. One possible design that results is the factorial design. In Excel, the data analysis procedure that should be used is the Anova: TwoFactor With Replication procedure. This procedure allows both the factors to be analyzed as well as the interaction between them. We illustrate its use with the following example.
Exercise 8.2: We use Example 8.10 in the Statistics for Business and Economics text.
Suppose the United States Golf Association (USGA) tests four different brands (A, B, C, D) of golf balls and two different clubs (driver, fiveiron) in a completely randomized design. Each of the eight BrandClub combinations (treatments) is randomly and independently assigned to four experimental units, each experimental unit consisting of a specific position in the sequence of hits by Iron Byron. The distance response is recorded for each of the 32 hits, and the results are shown in Table 8.3.
a. Use Excel to partition the Total Sum of Squares into the components necessary to analyze this 4x2 factorial experiment.
b. Follow the steps for analyzing a twofactor factorial experiment and interpret the results of your analysis. Use ? = .10 for the tests you conduct.
Table 8.3
BRAND  
A  B  C  D  
DRIVER  226.4  238.3  240.5  219.8  
DRIVER  232.6  231.7  246.9  228.7  
DRIVER  234.0  227.7  240.3  232.9  
CLUB  DRIVER  220.7  237.2  244.7  237.6  
FIVEIRON  163.8  184.4  179.0  157.8  
FIVEIRON  179.4  180.6  168.0  161.8  
FIVEIRON  168.6  179.5  165.2  162.1  
FIVEIRON  173.4  186.2  156.5  160.3 
Solution:
We begin by opening the Excel file SBE Example 8.10. Click on the Tools menu located at the top of the Excel worksheet. Select the Data Analysis option from within the Tools menu and highlight the Anova: Two Factor With Replication option (see Figure 8.3). Click OK.
Either type or click the rows and columns where the input data is located and enter this information into the Input Range area of the Anova: Two Factor With Replication menu (see Figure 8.4). Include the labels for the columns and rows of the factor when inputting the data range. Note that each Brand of golf ball includes four rows of data for each of the two Clubs tested. Enter the number of rows (e.g., 4) in the Rows per Sample area of the menu. Give a level of significance in the Alpha cell of the menu (e.g., .10). Specify the location of the computed output by selecting either the Output Range, New Worksheet Ply, or New Workbook option, and entering the corresponding cell or name. Click OK.
Section 8.3: The Factorial Design 123
Figure 8.3
Figure 8.4
The ANOVA printout generated for the factorial design has two main components (see Table 8.4). The first component is a statistical summary of the various treatments in the analysis. For each of the eight BrandClub treatments, Excel gives some summary information concerning the distances achieved by each. This information can be used when comparing treatment means similar to the methods used in Section 8.3.
The second component is the analysis of variance table and is where the pertinent testing information will be found. This is where the sums of squares are petitioned into the various components and where the interaction and individual factor test statistics and pvalues are located. Compare this printout to the one found in the text.
The first test of interest to the USGA is to determine if interaction exists between the Club and Brand factors in the experiment. We use the test statistic (t = 7.452435) and the pvalue (p = 0.001079) found in the interaction row of the analysis of variance table. Refer to the text for more information concerning the interpretation of these values and the followup analysis that is necessary for factorial designs.
We note here one drawback associated with the Excel analysis for the completely randomized and factorial designs in the analysis of variance experiments. Excel offers the appropriate analyses for determining when differences exist between the treatment means for each of these two experimental designs, but does not offer any method to determine where the specific differences exists. Both the SAS™ and MINITAB™ software packages offer options for conducting the multiple comparison procedures that enable the user to conduct the appropriate followup analysis for both the completely randomized and factorial designs. Consult Section 8.3 and the references at the end of the text for more information on this topic.
Table 8.4
Anova: TwoFactor With Replication SUMMARY A B C D Total DRIVER 
Count 4 4 4 4 16 Sum 913.7 934.9 972.4 919 3740 Average 228.425 233.725 243.1 229.75 233.75 Variance 37.429167 24.46917 10.53333 57.21667 61.07067 FIVEIRON 
Count 4 4 4 4 16 Sum 685.2 730.7 668.7 642 2726.6 Average 171.3 182.675 167.175 160.5 170.4125 Variance 44.52 9.929167 86.1225 3.86 98.19183 Total 
Count 8 8 8 8 Sum 1598.9 1665.6 1641.1 1561 Average 199.8625 208.2 205.1375 195.125 Variance 967.48268 759.3429 1688.454 1396.336 ANOVA 
Source of Variation SS df MS F Pvalue F crit 
Sample 32093.111 1 32093.11 936.7516 9.63E21 2.927116 Columns 800.73625 3 266.9121 7.790779 0.00084 2.32739 Interaction 765.96125 3 255.3204 7.452435 0.001079 2.32739 Within 822.24 24 34.26 Total 34482.049 31 
Chapter 8: Technology Lab 125
Technology Lab
The following exercises from the Statistics for Business and Economics text are given for you to practice the procedures covered in the text that are available within PHStat. Included with the exercises are the PHStat outputs that were generated to solve the problems.
8.84 A directmail company assembles and stores paper products (envelopes, letters, brochures, order cards, etc.) for its customers. The company estimates the total number of pieces received in a shipment by estimating the weight per piece and then weighing the entire shipment. The company is unsure whether the sample of pieces used to estimate the mean weight per piece should be drawn from a single carton, or whether it is worth the extra time required to pull a few pieces from several cartons. To aid management in making a decision, eight brochures were pulled from each of five cartons of a typical shipment and weighed. The weights (in pounds) are shown in the table.
b. Do these data provide sufficient evidence to indicate differences in the mean weight per brochure among the five cartons?
PHStat Output
Anova: Single Factor  
SUMMARY  
Groups Carton 1  8  Sum 0.14767  Average 0.018459  Variance 1.1E08  
Carton 2  8  0.15028  0.018785  1.03E08  
Carton 3  8  0.14962  0.018703  1.19E08  
Carton 4  8  0.15217  0.019021  5.36E08  
Carton 5  8  0.15031  0.018789  3.54E08  
ANOVA  
Source of Variation  SS  df  MS  F  Pvalue  F crit  
Between Groups  1.31E06  4  3.27E07  13.36641  1.04E06  2.641464  
Within Groups  8.56E07  35  2.44E08  
Total  2.16E06  39  
8.91 Sixteen workers were randomly selected to participate in an experiment to determine the effects of work scheduling and method of payment on attitude toward the job. Two schedules were employed, the standard 85 workday and a modification whereby the worker could decide each day whether to start at 7 or 8 A.M.; in addition, the worker could choose between a halfhour or onehour lunch period each day. The two methods of payment were a standard hourly rate and a reduced hourly rate with an added piece rate based on the worker’s productivity. Four workers were randomly assigned to each of the four schedulingpayment combinations, and each completed an attitude test after one month on the job. The test scores are shown in the table.
a. Is there evidence that the treatment means differ? Use ? = .05
b. If the test in part b warrants further analysis, conduct the appropriate tests of interaction and main effects. Interpret your results.
PHStat Output
Payment Hourly Hourly/Piece  
85  54  89  
85  68  75  
85  55  71  
Scheduling  85  63  83 
Modified  79  83  
Modified  65  94  
Modified  62  91  
Modified  74  86 
Anova: TwoFactor With Replication SUMMARY  Hourly  Hourly/Piece  Total  
85  
Count  4  4  8  
Sum  240  318  558  
Average  60  79.5  69.75  
Variance  44.66667  65  155.6429  
Modified  
Count  4  4  8  
Sum  280  354  634  
Average  70  88.5  79.25  
Variance Total  62  24.33333  134.7857  
Count  8  8  
Sum  520  672  
Average  65  84  
Variance ANOVA  74.28571  61.42857  
Source of Variation  SS  df  MS  F  Pvalue  F crit 
Sample  361  1  361  7.367347  0.018806  4.747221 
Columns  1444  1  1444  29.46939  0.000153  4.747221 
Interaction  1  1  1  0.020408  0.888774  4.747221 
Within  588  12  49  
Total  2394  15 
Chapter 9
Categorical Data Analysis
9.1 Introduction
Chapter 9 introduces the topic of categorical data analysis to the reader. Both the oneway and twoway analyses are discussed in the text. PHStat allows the user to work with the twoway analyses found in the contingency tables covered in section 9.3 of the text. We illustrate the PHStat twoway analysis by using the following example from the text:
Excel Companion Statistics for Business and Economics Exercise Page Example
9.1 128 Example 9.3
9.2 Testing Categorical Probabilities: Two Way Table
Chapter 2 introduced the reader to the idea of presenting descriptive results of collected data in a tabular form. In Chapter 9, we now take a look at a technique that allows us to determine if the outcomes of these two variables are dependent upon one another. The twoway analysis of data is available in PHStat through using the ChiSquare Test found in the MultiSample Test option of the PHStat menu. The general Chi Square Test menu is shown in Figure 9.1. The user is required to initially enter a Level of Significance
Figure 9.1
for the desired test, and the Number of Rows and Columns for the data that is being analyzed. An optional Output Title is available, and OK is selected to finish. The selections made in this menu will create a worksheet that the user can customized to generate the desired test for independence between two variables. We illustrate in the following example.
127
Exercise 9.1 Use example 9.3 found in the Statistics for Business and Economics text.
A large brokerage firm wants to determine whether the service it provides to affluent clients differs from the service it provides to lowerincome clients. A sample of 500 clients is selected, and each client is asked to rate his or her broker. The results are shown below in Table 9.1.
Table 9.1
Clients Income  
Under $30,000  $3060,000  Over $60,000  Totals  
Outstanding  48  64  41  153  
Broker  Average  98  120  50  268 
Rating  Poor  30  33  16  79 
Totals  176  217  107  500 
a. Test to determine whether there is evidence that broker rating and customer income are independent. Use ? = .10.
Solution:
In the ChiSquare Test menu, we enter a Level of Significance of .10 (See Figure 9.2), a Number of Rows of 3, and a Number of Columns of 3. We enter an Output Title and click OK. These selections create a worksheet with a 3x3table template (See Figure 9.3)
Figure 9.2
Section 9.2: Testing Categorical Probabilities: Two Way Table 129Figure 9.3
SBE Example 9.3 Observed Frequencies Column variable Row variable C1 C2 C3  Total  
R1  0  
R2  0  
R3  0  
Total 0 0 0  0  
Expected Frequencies Column variable Row variable C1 C2 C3  Total  
R1  #DIV/0!  "top"> #DIV/0!  #DIV/0!  #DIV/0! 
R2  #DIV/0!  #DIV/0!  #DIV/0!  #DIV/0! 
R3  #DIV/0!  #DIV/0!  #DIV/0!  #DIV/0! 
Total  #DIV/0!  #DIV/0!  #DIV/0!  #DIV/0! 
Data Level of Significance  0.1  
Number of Rows  3  
Number of Columns  3  
Degrees of Freedom  4  
Results Critical Value  7.779434  
ChiSquare Test Statistic  #DIV/0!  
pValue #DIV/0! Expected frequency assumption #DIV/0!  #DIV/0! 
This worksheet is a template that allows the user to change the values of the table cells to represent the data of their 3x3 table. We begin by replacing the generic labels Column Variable and Row Variable with the variable names of our example, Client's Income and Broker Rating. The next step is to replace the outcomes that are listed in the table as A1, A2, B1, and B2 with the outcomes that are meaningful in our example (e.g., Under $30,000, $30$60,000, Over $60,000, Outstanding, Average, and Poor). The final step is to change the numbers shown in the table with the numbers that are shown in Table 9.1. The changed worksheet is shown in Figure 9.4.
Figure 9.4
SBE Example 9.3 Observed Frequencies Client's Income Under $30,000  Over Broker Rating $30,000 $60,000 $60,000  Total  
Outstanding 48  64  41  153  
Average 98  120  50  268  
Poor 30  33  16  79  
Total 176 217 107 Expected Frequencies Client's Income  500  
Broker Rating  Under $30,000  $30,000  $60,000  Over $60,000  Total  
Outstanding  53.856  66.402  32.742  153  
Average  94.336  116.312  57.352  268  
Poor  27.808  34.286  16.906  79  
Total  176  217  107  500  
Data Level of Significance  0.1  
Number of Rows  3  
Number of Columns  3  
Degrees of Freedom  4  
Results Critical Value  7.779434  
ChiSquare Test Statistic  4.277705  
pValue0.369725 Do not reject the null hypothesis Expected frequency assumption is met.  
The chisquare test statistic and pvalue found on this printout should be compared to the values found on the printout that is shown in the text. The test of independence can be conducted using this procedure for any twoway analysis regardless of the number of levels for each of the two classifications of interest.
Chapter 9: Technology Lab 131
Technology Lab
The following exercise from the Statistics for Business and Economics text is given for you to practice the categorical twoway procedure that is available within PHStat. Included with the exercise is the PHStat output that was generated to solve the problem.
9.26 An article in Sociological Methods & Research (May, 2001) analyzed the data presented in the table. A sample of 262 Kansas pig farmers were classified according to their education level (college or not) and size of their pig farm (number of pigs). Conduct a test to determine whether a pig farmer’s education level has an impact on the size of the pig farm. Use ? = .05 and support your answer with a graph.
Data
Education Level  
Farm Size  No College  College  TOTALS 
<1,000 pigs  42  53  95 
1,0002,000 pigs  27  42  69 
2,0005,000 pigs  22  20  42 
>5,000 pigs  27  29  256 
TOTALS  118  144  262 
PHStat Output
SBE Exercise 9.26  
Observed Frequencies  
Column variable  
Row variable  C1  C2  Total 
R1  42  53  95 
R2  27  42  69 
R3  22  20  42 
R4  27  29  56 
Total  118  144  262 
Expected Frequencies  
Column variable  
Row variable  C1  C2  Total 
R1  42.78626  52.21374  95 
R2  31.07634  37.92366  69 
R3  18.91603  23.08397  42 
R4  25.22137  30.77863  56 
Total  118  144  262 
Data  
Level of Significance  0.05  
Number of Rows  4  
Number of Columns  2  
Degrees of Freedom  3  
Results  
Critical Value  7.814725  
ChiSquare Test Statistic  2.142164  
pValue  0.54343  
Do not reject the null hypothesis  
Expected frequency assumption is met 
Chapter 10
Simple Linear Regression
10.1 Introduction
Chapters 10 and 11 in Statistics for Business and Economics introduce the topic of regression analysis to the reader. Chapter 10 serves as the introduction of the general concepts of simple linear regression. Simple Linear Regression is how the text introduces the theories and concepts of mathematical modeling to the reader. These topics are then expanded in Chapter 11 of the text.
We will take a similar approach to regression as does the text. We will use Chapter 10 to introduce you to the methods PHStat offers to work with regression analysis. We will see how PHStat can be used to calculate both the correlation and the linear modeling ideas that are presented in the text. We will use the chapter examples that are given in the text to illustrate these methods. The following examples from Statistics for Business and Economics are solved with PHStat in this chapter:
Excel Companion Statistics for Business and Economics Exercise Page Example
10.1 133 Example 10.4
10.2 136 Example 10.5 10.3 138 Example 10.6/10.7
10.2 The Coefficient of Correlation
Regression analysis is all about the relationship between variables. Chapters 10 and 11 spend time developing the mathematical modeling of one variable using the values of other related variables. The simplest form of this modeling idea is the linear relationship between two variables. This idea, known as correlation, is studied in Chapter 10 of Statistics for Business and Economics. We examine how PHStat calculates correlations below.
Exercise 10.1: Use Example 10.4 found in the Statistics for Business and Economics text.
Legalized gambling is available on several riverboat casinos operated by a city in Mississippi. The mayor of the city wants to know the correlation between the number of casino employees and the yearly crime rate. The records for the past 10 years are examined and the results listed in Table 10.1 are obtained. Calculate the coefficient of correlation r for the data.
Table 10.1
Year  Number of Employees, x  Crime Rate, y 
1997  15  1.35 
1998  18  1.63 
1999  24  2.33 
2000  22  2.41 
2001  25  2.63 
2002  29  2.93 
2003  30  3.41 
2004  32  3.26 
2005  35  3.63 
2006  38  4.15 
133
Solution:
We begin by opening the data file SBE Example 10.4 that is found on the floppy disk included with this manual. Choose the Regression option within the PHStat menu. Select the Simple Linear Regression option from those listed. You should now be looking at the Simple Linear Regression menu shown in Figure 10.1.
To generate the coefficient of correlation, the user needs to enter the location of the two variables of interests (labeled as the Y variable and the X variable), and select the Regression Statistics Table option. Begin by entering the column where the dependent variable is located in the Y Variable Cell Range of this menu (see Figure 10.2). Enter the column where the independent variable is located in the X Variable Cell Range. This can be done by typing the location or by clicking and dragging over the appropriate data cells in your workbook. You have the option of including the variable name in the first cell of data. The user can also specify an optional title for the output. Check the Regression Statistics Table option and click OK. The output generated by PHStat is shown in Table 10.2.
Figure 10.1
Section 10.3: The Coefficient of Determination and Regression Output 135
Figure 10.2
Table 10.2
SBE Example 10.4 Correlation 
Regression Statistics 
Multiple R 0.987029777 R Square 0.974227782 Adjusted R Square 0.971006254 Standard Error 0.149932817 Observations 10 
From the printout, we find that the coefficient of correlation is r = 0.98703. We next look at how the coefficient of determination and other simple linear regression output are generated within PHStat.
10.3 The Coefficient of Determination and Regression Output
After studying the topic of correlation, the next step in learning regression analysis is understanding the modeling concepts. Our goal in regression is to build a mathematical relationship that attempts to predict the value of one variable, y, with the values of other related variables, the x’s. Chapter 10 presents the simplest form of this modeling idea  simple linear regression. In it, a single independent variable, x, is hypothesized to have a straightline relationship with the dependent variable, y.
The example that we use from Statistics for Business and Economics asks the reader to calculate the coefficient of determination from the data. Our purpose here is to use the data from the example to generate the basic simple linear regression output with Excel. As you will see, the coefficient of determination is one of the components of this output.
Exercise 10.2: We use Example 10.5 found in the Statistics for Business and Economics text.
Calculate the coefficient of determination for the advertisingsales example that is used as an example throughout the text. The data are shown below in Table 10.3 for convenience.
Table 10.3
Advertising Expenditures, x (100s)  Sales Revenues, y ($1,000s) 
1  1 
2  1 
3  2 
4  2 
5  4 
Solution:
We begin by opening the data file SBE Example 10.5 that is found on the floppy disk included with this manual. Choose the Regression option within the PHStat menu. Select the Simple Linear Regression option from those listed. You should now be looking at the same Simple Linear Regression menu shown in Figure 10.1.
To generate the coefficient of determination and other simple regression output, the user needs to enter the location of the two variables of interests (labeled as the Y variable and the X variable), and select both the Regression Statistics Table and the ANOVA and Coefficients Table options. Begin by entering the column where the dependent variable is located in the Y Variable Cell Range of this menu (see Figure 10.3). Enter the column where the independent variable is located in the X Variable Cell Range. This can be done by typing the location or by clicking and dragging over the appropriate data cells in your workbook. You have the option of including the variable name in the first cell of data. The user can also specify an optional title for the output. Check both the Regression Statistics Table and the ANOVA and Coefficients Table options and click OK. The output generated by PHStat is shown in Table 10.4.
Section 10.3: The Coefficient of Determination and Regression Output 137
Figure 10.3
Table 10.4
SBE Example 10.5  
Regression Statistics  
Multiple R  0.903696  
R Square  0.816667  
Adjusted R Square  0.75556  
Standard Error  0.60553  
Observations  5  
ANOVA  
Df SS  MS  F  Significance F  
Regression  1  4.9 4.9  13.3636  0.035352847  
Residual  3  1.1 0.366667  
Total  4  6  
Coefficients Standard Error t Stat  Pvalue  Lower 95%  Upper 95%  
Intercept  0.1 0.6350852 0.15746  0.88488  2.12112675  1.92112675  
Advertising Expenditure, x ($100's)  0.7 0.1914854 3.655631  0.03535  0.090607356 1.309392644 
Table 10.4 gives the standard simple linear regression output. In addition to the desired coefficient of determination, the simple linear regression model is given. We point out the most important features of the printout generated by PHStat. Compare these values to those shown in the Statistics for Business and Economics text.
Excel Printout Values  Description of Values 
Multiple R = 0.903696  Coefficient of correlation 
R Square = 0.816667  Coefficient of determination 
Standard Error = 0.605530  Square Root of MSE or s 
Intercept Coefficient = 0.1  Estimate of ?_{o} 
X Variable 1 Coefficient = 0.7  Estimate of ?_{1}) 
T Stat for X Variable 1 = 3.655631  Test Statistic for testing ?_{1} 
Pvalue for X Variable 1 = 0.03535  Pvalue for testing ?_{1} 
We find the value of the coefficient of determination is found on the PHStat to be R^{2} = 0.816667. Many of the other values presented in Table 10.4 will be discussed in Chapter 11. The last topic that we cover in Chapter 10 is the topic of generating confidence and prediction intervals for specified values of X.
10.4 Estimating and Predicting with a Simple Linear Model
The final step in the simple linear regression analysis is to use the model to estimate and predict values of the dependent variable, y, for specified settings of the independent variable, x. We illustrate this procedure using the following example.
Exercise 10.3: Use Examples 10.6 and 10.7 found in the Statistics for Business and Economics text.
Example 10.6: Find a 95% confidence interval for the mean monthly sales when the appliance store spends $400 on advertising.
Example 10.7: Predict the monthly sales for the next month, if $400 is spent on advertising. Use a 95% prediction interval.
Solution:
Both of these problems refer back to the data in SBE Example 10.5. We begin by opening the data file SBE Example 10.5 that is found on the floppy disk included with this manual. Choose the Regression option within the PHStat menu. Select the Simple Linear Regression option from those listed. You should now be looking at the same Simple Linear Regression menu shown in Figure 10.1.
To generate the confidence and prediction output desired in these two examples, the user needs to enter the location of the two variables of interests (labeled as the Y variable and the X variable), and select only the Confidence and Prediction Interval for X= option. Begin by entering the column where the dependent variable is located in the Y Variable Cell Range of this menu (see Figure 10.4). Enter the column where the independent variable is located in the X Variable Cell Range. This can be done by typing the location or by clicking and dragging over the appropriate data cells in your workbook. You have the option of including the variable name in the first cell of data. The user can also specify an optional title for the output. Check the Confidence and Prediction Interval for X=
Section 10.4: Estimating and Predicting with a Simple Linear Model 139
option. Once this option is selected, the user must then enter a value of X and a confidence level that is desired. In this example, we choose to enter the value of X = 4 (representing an advertising expenditure of $400) and a confidence level of 95%. We then click OK. The output generated by PHStat is shown in Table 10.5.
Figure 10.4
We see that the confidence and prediction interval endpoints are the same values that are calculated in the Statistics for Business and Economics. We see how easy it is to use PHStat to calculate the regression confidence and prediction intervals described in the text.
Table 10.5
Confidence Interval Estimate X Value 4 Confidence Level 95% 
Sample Size 5 Degrees of Freedom 3 t Value 3.182449291 Sample Mean 3 Sum of Squared Difference 10.00 Standard Error of the Estimate 0.605530071 h Statistic 0.3 Average Predicted Y (YHat) 2.7 
For Average Predicted Y (YHat) Interval Half Width 1.055499021 Confidence Interval Lower Limit 1.644500979 Confidence Interval Upper Limit 3.755499021 
For Individual Response Y Interval Half Width 2.197196425 Prediction Interval Lower Limit 0.502803575 Prediction Interval Upper Limit 4.897196425 
Chapter 10: Technology Lab 141
Technology Lab
The following exercise from the Statistics for Business and Economics text is given for you to practice the procedure covered in the text that is available within PHStat. Included with the exercise is the PHStat output that was generated to solve the problem.
10.80 Emotional exhaustion, or burnout, is a significant problem for people with careers in the field of human services. Regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between burnout and aspects of the human service's professional's job and jobrelated behavior (Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, Vol. 22, 1986). Emotional exhaustion was measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory, a questionnaire. One of the independent variables considered, called concentration, was the proportion of social contacts with individuals who belong to a person's work group. The table below lists the values of the emotional exhaustion index (higher values indicate greater exhaustion) and concentration for a sample of 25 human services professionals who work in a large public hospital.
Exhaustion Index, y  Concentration, x  Exhaustion Index, y  Concentration, x 
100  20  493  86 
525  60  892  83 
300  38  527  79 
980  88  600  75 
310  79  855  81 
900  87  709  75 
410  68  791  77 
296  12  718  77 
120  35  684  77 
501  70  141  17 
920  80  400  85 
810  92  970  96 
506  77 
a. Construct a scattergram for the data. Do the variables x and y appear to be related?
b. Find the correlation coefficient for the data and interpret its value. Does your conclusion mean that concentration causes emotional exhaustion? Explain.
c. Test the usefulness of the straightline relationship with concentration for predicting burnout. Use ? = .05.
d. Find the coefficient of determination for the model and interpret it.
e. Find a 95% confidence interval for the slope ?_{1}. Interpret the result.
f. Use a 95% confidence interval to estimate the mean exhaustion level for all professionals who have 80% of their social contacts within their work groups. Interpret the interval.
PHStat Output
SBE Exercise 10.80  
Regression Statistics  
Multiple R  0.78250049  
R Square  0.61230702  
Adjusted R Square  0.59545081  
Standard Error  174.207422  
Observations  25  
ANOVA  
df  SS  MS  F  Significance F  
Regression  1  1102408.2  1102408  36.325295  3.80242E06  
Residual  23  698009.2  30348.2  
Total  24  1800417.4  
Coefficients  Standard Error  t Stat  Pvalue  Lower 95%  Upper 95%  
Intercept  29.4967176  106.69716  0.27645  0.7846695  250.216316 191.2228804  
Concentration, x  8.86547138  1.4709478  6.02705  3.802E06  5.822588168 11.90835458 
Confidence Interval Estimate X Value 80 Confidence Level 95% 
Sample Size 25 Degrees of Freedom 23 t Value 2.068654794 Sample Mean 68.56 Sum of Squared Difference 14026.16 Standard Error of the Estimate 174.207422 h Statistic 0.049330679 Average Predicted Y (YHat) 679.7409925 
For Average Predicted Y (YHat) Interval Half Width 80.04113265 Confidence Interval Lower Limit 599.6998599 Confidence Interval Upper Limit 759.7821252 
For Individual Response Y Interval Half Width 369.1567919 Prediction Interval Lower Limit 310.5842006 Prediction Interval Upper Limit 1048.897784 
Chapter 11
Multiple Regression and Model Building
11.1 Introduction
Chapter 11 in Statistics for Business and Economics introduces the topic of multiple regression analysis to the reader. While Chapter 10 served as the introduction to the general concepts of simple linear regression, Chapter 11 expands these concepts to modeling with several variables. In addition, Chapter 11 examines some of the problems associated with regression analysis and gives methods of detecting and solving these problems.
We utilize Chapter 11 examples to build on the linear regression base developed in the preceding chapter. Through the use of the Regression data analysis tool, PHStat allows the user to build more sophisticated models than the linear models of Chapter 10. We examine both the model building methods and the residual analysis options offered within PHStat. We will use the chapter examples that are given in the text to illustrate these methods. The following examples from Statistics for Business and Economics are solved with PHStat in this chapter:
Excel Companion Statistics for Business and Economics Exercise Page Example
11.1 143 Example 11.3
11.2 147 Example 11.4
11.3 159 Example 11.5
11.4 152 Example 11.12
11.5 155 Example 11.15/11.16
11.2 Multiple Regression Model Building
We have seen in Chapter 10 how to use PHStat to build a simple linear regression model using one independent variable, x. The next step in our regression process in to add more independent variables into the regression model. PHStat allows for this using the same menus as seen in the simple linear regression chapter. We us an example from the text below.
Exercise 11.1: We use Example 11.3 found in the Statistics for Business and Economics text.
A collector of antique grandfather clocks knows that the price received for the clocks increases linearly with the age of the clocks. Moreover, the collector hypothesizes that the auction price of the clocks will increase linearly as the number of bidders increase. Thus, the following model is hypothesized:
y = ?_{0} + ?_{1}x_{1} + ?_{2}x_{2} + ?
143
A sample of 32 auction prices of grandfather clocks, along with their age and the number of bidders is shown in Table 11.1 The model y = ?_{0} + ?_{1}x_{1} + ?_{2}x_{2} + ? is fit to the data. Use PHStat to:
a. Test the hypothesis that the mean auction price of a clock increases as the number of bidders increases when age is held constant, that is, ?_{2} > 0. Use ? = .05.
Table 11.1
Age(x_{1})  Number of Bidders (x_{2})  Auction Price (y)  Age(x_{1})  Number of Bidders (x_{2})  Auction Price (y) 
127  13  1,235  170  14  2,131 
115  12  1,080  182  8  1,550 
127  7  845  162  11  1,884 
150  9  1,522  184  10  2,041 
156  6  1,047  143  6  845 
182  11  1,979  159  9  1,483 
156  12  1,822  108  14  1,055 
132  10  1,253  175  8  1,545 
137  9  1,297  108  6  729 
113  9  946  179  9  1,792 
137  15  1,713  111  15  1,175 
117  11  1,024  187  8  1,593 
137  8  1,147  111  7  785 
153  6  1,092  115  7  744 
117  13  1,152  194  5  1,356 
126  10  1,336  168  7  1,262 
Solution:
We need to generate the multiple regression model hypothesized above using PHStat. The printout generated must include the individual coefficient estimates and the corresponding ttests of those parameters. Fortunately, the standard PHStat regression output yields both of the desired values.
We begin by opening the data file SBE Example 11.3 that is found on the floppy disk included with this manual. Choose the Regression option within the PHStat menu. Select the Multiple Regression optionfrom those listed. You should now be looking at the same Multiple Regression Menu shown in Figure 11.1.
Figure 11.1
To generate the coefficient estimate information that is desired in this problem, the user needs to enter the location of the two variables of interests (labeled as the Y variable and the X variable), and select the ANOVA and Coefficients Table option. Begin by entering the column where the dependent variable is located in the Y Variable Cell Range of this menu (see Figure 11.2). Enter the column where the independent variables are located in the X Variables Cell Range. This can be done by typing the location or by clicking and dragging over the appropriate data cells in your workbook. You have the option of including the variable name in the first cell of data. The user can also specify an optional title for the output. Check the ANOVA and Coefficients Table option and click OK. The output generated by PHStat is shown in Table 11.2.
Figure 11.2
Table 11.2
12.74057
SBE Example 11.3 ANOVA  
df  SS  MS  F  Significance F  
Regression  2  4283062.96  2141531  120.1882  9.2164E15  
Residual  29  516726.5399  17818.16  
Total  31  4799789.5  
Coefficients  Standard Error  t Stat  Pvalue  Lower 95%  Upper 95%  
Intercept  1338.95  173.8094707  7.70356  1.71E08  1694.4318  983.470865 
Age (x1)  0.904740307  14.08202  1.69E14  10.8901714  14.5909768  
Number of Bidders (x2)  85.95298  8.728523289  9.847368  9.34E11  68.1011401 103.8048287 
Compare this output to the MINITAB output shown in the text. In order to test whether the price of a clock increases as the number of bidders increases, holding age constant, we use the test statistic and pvalue shown on the printout for the x_{2} variable. The printout shows that t = 9.847 and p ? 0. The estimates of the ? coefficients can be found in the Coefficients column in the printout. Our estimates of ?_{0}, ?_{1}, and ?_{2} are 1338.95, 12.74 and 85.95, respectively. We refer you to the text for more detailed information regarding the interpretations and conclusion that should be made for these values.
The next step of a regression analysis is to test all the hypothesized variables simultaneously. We refer to this process as checking the usefulness of the model. This process is illustrated in the following example.
Exercise 11.2: We use Example 11.4 found in the Statistics for Business and Economics text.
A collector of antique grandfather clocks knows that the price received for the clocks increases linearly with the age of the clocks. Moreover, the collector hypothesizes that the auction price of the clocks will increase linearly as the number of bidders increase. Thus, the following model is hypothesized:
y = ?_{0} + ?_{1}x_{1} + ?_{2}x_{2} + ?
A sample of 32 auction prices of grandfather clocks, along with their age and the number of bidders is shown in Table 11.1 The model y = ?_{0} + ?_{1}x_{1} + ?_{2}x_{2} + ? is fit to the data. Use Excel to :
a. Find and interpret the adjusted coefficient of determination R ._{a}^{2}
b. Conduct the global Ftest of model usefulness at the ? = .05 level of significance.
Solution:
We need to generate the multiple regression model hypothesized above using PHStat. The printout generated must include the adjusted coefficient of determination and the globalF test and pvalue information. Fortunately, the standard PHStat regression output yields both of the desired values.
We begin by opening the data file SBE Example 11.3 that is found on the floppy disk included with this manual. Choose the Regression option within the PHStat menu. Select the Multiple Regression optionfrom those listed. You should now be looking at the same Multiple Regression Menu shown in Figure 11.1.
To generate the adjusted coefficient of determination and the globalF test information desired in this problem, the user needs to enter the location of the two variables of interests (labeled as the Y variable and the X variable), and select both the Regression Statistics Table and the ANOVA and Coefficients Table options. Begin by entering the column where the dependent variable is located in the Y Variable Cell Range of this menu (see Figure 11.3). Enter the column where the independent variables are located in the X Variables Cell Range. This can be done by typing the location or by clicking and dragging over the appropriate data cells in your workbook. You have the option of including the variable name in the first cell of data. The user can also specify an optional title for the output. Check both the Regression Statistics Table and the ANOVA and Coefficients Table options and click OK. The output generated by PHStat is shown in Table 11.3.
Figure 11.3
Table 11.3
Regression Statistics
Multiple R  0.94464  
R Square  0.892344  
Adjusted R Square  0.884919  
Standard Error  133.4847  
Observations  32  
ANOVA  
df  SS  MS  F  Significance F  
Regression  2  4283062.96  2141531  120.1882  9.2164E15  
Residual  29  516726.5399  17818.16  
Total  31  4799789.5  
Coefficients  Standard Error  t Stat  Pvalue  Lower 90.0%  Upper 90.0% 
Intercept 1338.95 173.8094707 7.70356 1.71E08 1634.27572 1043.627 Age (x1) 12.74057 0.904740307 14.08202 1.69E14 11.2033053 14.2778429 Number of Bidders (x2) 85.95298 8.728523289 9.847368 9.34E11 71.1221139 100.783855
The adjusted coefficient of determination R_{a}^{2} is listed as the Adjusted R Square value in the
Regression Statistics table above. The R_{a}^{2} value of R_{a}^{2} = 0.8849 can be compared to the value shown in the text. The global F statistic and pvalue are both shown in the ANOVA table in the printout above. The global F statistic of F = 120.188 and the pvalue of p ? 0 are identical to the values shown in the text. We refer you to the text for more detailed information regarding the interpretations and conclusions that should be made for these values.
The next step in the model building process of a regression analysis is to add various types of regression terms to the model. Whether the terms added are interactions, quadratics, or qualitative terms, the process within PHStat is the same. We illustrate this process by adding an interaction component to the preceding example to illustrate. Please note that the process of adding quadratic and qualitative terms to the regression model is identical to the process demonstrated in the next example.
Exercise 11.3: We use Example 11.5 found in the Statistics for Business and Economics text.
Refer to Examples 11.3 and 11.4. Suppose the collector of grandfather clocks, having observed many auctions, believes that the rate of increase of the auction price with age will be driven upward by a large number of bidders. Thus, instead of a relationship in which the rate of the price is the same for any number of bidders, the collector believes the slope of the priceage relationship increases as the number of bidders increases. Consequently, the interaction model is proposed:
Y = ?_{0} + ?_{1}x_{1} + ?_{2}x_{2}+ ?_{3}x_{1}x_{2} + ?
a. Test the overall utility of the model using the global Ftest at ? = .05.
b. Test the hypothesis (at ? = .05) that the priceage slope increases as the number of bidders increases  that is, that age and number of bidders, x_{2}, interact positively.
Solution:
In order to fit a regression model that includes an interaction term, this term must be added to the data set in our Excel file. We refer the reader to Sections P.9 and P.10 to use formulas within Excel to create the desired age*bidder interaction term. Once created, the data look like the data shown in Table 11.4 below:
Table 11.4
Age (x1)  Number of Bidders (x2)  Age*Bidders (x1*x2)  Auction Price (y) 
127  13  1651  $1,235 
115  12  1380  $1,080 
127  7  889  $845 
150  9  1350  $1,522 
156  6  936  $1,047 
182  11  2002  $1,979 
156  12  1872  $1,822 
132  10  1320  $1,253 
137  9  1233  $1,297 
113  9  1017  $946 
137  15  2055  $1,713 
117  11  1287  $1,024 
137  8  1096  $1,147 
.  .  .  . 
.  .  .  . 
.  .  .  . 
Once the data set includes the interaction variable, choose the Regression option within the PHStat menu. Select the Multiple Regression optionfrom those listed. You should now be looking at the same Multiple Regression Menu shown in Figure 11.1.
To generate the coefficient estimate and the globalF test information desired in this problem, the user needs to enter the location of the two variables of interests (labeled as the Y variable and the X variable), and select both the Regression Statistics Table and the ANOVA and Coefficients Table options. Begin by entering the column where the dependent variable is located in the Y Variable Cell Range of this menu (see Figure 11.4). Enter the column where the independent variables are located in the X Variables Cell Range. This can be done by typing the location or by clicking and dragging over the appropriate data cells in your workbook. You have the option of including the variable name in the first cell of data. The user can also specify an optional title for the output. Check both the Regression Statistics Table and the ANOVA and Coefficients Table options and click OK. The output generated by PHStat is shown in Table 11.5. Compare these results to those shown in the printout found in the text.
Figure 11.4
Table 11.5
Regression Statistics Multiple R 0.976668248  
R Square  0.953880866  
Adjusted R Square  0.948939531  
Standard Error  88.91451215  
Observations ANOVA  32  
df  SS  MS  F  Significance F  
Regression  3  4578427.37  1526142.46  193.0411  8.35E19  
Residual  28  221362.133  7905.79047  
Total  31  4799789.5  
Coefficients  Standard Error  t Stat  Pvalue  Lower 95%  Upper 95%  
Intercept  320.4579934  295.141285  1.08577827  0.286837  284.1122  925.02819 
Age (x1)  0.878142475  2.03215593  0.43212357  0.6689613  3.2845449  5.0408299 
Number of Bidders (x2) 93.26482436  29.8916162  3.1200998  0.0041646  154.49509  32.03456  
Age*Bidders (x1*x2) 1.297845824  0.2123326  6.11232488  1.353E06  0.8629017  1.7327899 
11.3 Comparing Two Regression Models
We have seen how PHStat can be used to fit regression models with just quantitative variables and regression models with just qualitative variables. For more complicated models, PHStat allows the user to input both quantitative and qualitative variables into a single multiple regression model. The variables must be located in adjacent columns of data within the PHStat worksheet. By specifying the appropriate columns in the Regression data analysis menu, any number of quantitative and qualitative variables can be combined.
The final step in the model building topic is to develop a method that allows the user to compare two regression models to determine which is the better predictor of the dependent variable. Section 11.11 in the text details the partialF test for testing a portion of the regression model. By fitting two separate models within PHStat, it is possible to calculate the partialF test statistic that the book details. We demonstrate with the following example.
Exercise 11.4: We use Example 11.12 found in the Statistics for Business and Economics text.
Many companies manufacture products (e.g., steel, paint, and gasoline) that are at least partially chemically produced. In many instances, the quality of the finished product is a function of the temperature and pressure at which the chemical reactions take place. Suppose you want to model the quality y of a product as a function of the temperature x_{1} and the pressure x_{2} at which it is produced. Four inspectors independently assign a quality score between 0 and 100 to each product, and then the quality y is calculated by averaging the four scores. An experiment is conducted by varying temperature between 80^{o}F and 100^{o}F and pressure between 50 and 60 pounds per square inch (psi). The resulting data are given below.
x_{1} (^{o}F)  x_{2} (psi)  y  x_{1} (^{o}F)  x_{2} (psi)  y  x_{1} (^{o}F)  x_{2} (psi)  y  
80  50  50.8  90  50  63.4  100  50  46.6  
80  50  50.7  90  50  61.6  100  50  49.1  
80  50  49.4  90  50  63.4  100  50  46.4  
80  55  93.7  90  55  93.8  100  55  69.8  
80  55  90.9  90  55  92.1  100  55  72.5  
80  55  90.9  90  55  97.4  100  55  73.2  
80  60  74.5  90  60  70.9  100  60  38.7  
80  60  73.0  90  60  68.8  100  60  42.5  
80  60  71.2  90  60  71.3  100  60  41.4 
a. Fit a complete secondorder model to the data.
b. Sketch the fitted model in three dimensions.
c. Do the data provide sufficient evidence to indicate that the secondorder terms, ?_{3}, ?_{4}, and ?_{5} contribute information for the prediction of y?
Solution:
In order to compare the determine if the secondorder terms contribute information for predicting y, both a full model (containing the secondorder terms) and a reduced model (that does not contain the secondorder terms) must be fit in PHStat. We utilize the procedures covered in the last section to fit both models (using Data File SBE Table 11.6). The corresponding regression output for both models is shown below in Table 11.6 and Table 11.7.
Section 11.4: Stepwise Regression 153Table 11.6
ANOVA  Regression Analysis  Complete Model  
df  SS  MS  F  Significance F  
Regression  5  8402.26454  1680.4529  596.32392  7.0235E22  
Residual  21  59.1784259  2.8180203  
Total  26  8461.44296  
Coefficients  Standard Error  t Stat  Pvalue  Lower 95%  Upper 95%  
Intercept  5127.8991  110.296015  46.492152  1.153E22  5357.2722  4898.53 
x1 (oF)  31.0963889  1.34441322  23.130083  2.01E16  28.3005281  33.89225 
x2 (psi)  139.747222  3.14005412  44.504718  2.86E22  133.217121  146.2773 
x1*x1  0.1333889  0.00685325  19.463602  6.455E15  0.147641  0.11914 
x2*x2  1.1442222  0.02741299  41.740145  1.084E21  1.2012307  1.08721 
x1*x2  0.1455  0.00969196  15.01245  1.059E12  0.1656555  0.12534 
Table 11.7
ANOVA  Regression Analysis  Reduced Model  
df  SS  MS  F  Significance F  
Regression  2  1789.934444  894.96722  3.219544  0.0577239 
Residual  24  6671.508519  277.97952  
Total  26  8461.442963  
Coefficients  Standard Error  t Stat  Pvalue  Lower 95% Upper 95%  
Intercept  106.08519  55.94500427  1.8962405  0.07003  9.3796049 221.55 
x1 (oF)  0.9161111  0.392979729  2.331192  0.028469  1.7271812 0.105041 
x2 (psi)  0.7877778  0.785959458  1.0023135  0.326191  0.8343625 2.409918 
Compare these two printouts versus the SAS printouts found in the text. We refer you to the text for more detailed information regarding the interpretations and conclusion that should be made for these values.
11.4 Stepwise Regression
Optional Section 11.12 in the text offers the reader information concerning the topic of stepwise regression. This procedure allows the user to identify, from a large pool of potential independent variables, the set of the most useful variables for predicting a dependent variable To access the Stepwise Regression menu, click on the PHStat, choose the Regression option within the PHStat menu. Select the Stepwise Regression optionfrom those listed. You should now be looking at the same Stepwise Regression menu shown in Figure 11.5.
Figure 11.5
As with all the regression menus, the location of the dependent variable is entered in the Y Variable Cell Range and the location of all potential independent variables are entered in the X Variable Cell Range in the menu. The user has the option of specifying both a Stepwise Criteria and Stepwise Option as part of the stepwise process. These options go beyond the scope of the material presented in the text and we defer to some of the references listed in Chapter 11 of the text. For the procedure discussed in the text, the user should specify both a p values Stepwise Criteria and a Forward Selection Stepwise Option. The user then would click on OK to finish.
11.5 Residual Analysis
So far we have covered model building, model testing, and stepwise regression within the PHStat program. The last topic to address is the topic of residual analysis. As specified in the text, the topic of residual analysis requires the construction of several different graphical displays that are readily available from the multiple regression menu. The Multiple Regression menu is again shown below in Figure 11.6. Before demonstrating the various plots available, we list the options available and give a brief description regarding their use in a residual analysis of a regression model.
Figure 11.6
Residual Table Provides a listing of the residuals for the hypothesized regression model
Residual Plots Generates a scatter plot for the regression residuals plotted against each of the Independent variables entered into the regression model.
We illustrate how to use these plots using the following example from the text. In addition, we explain how to generate other graphical displays that are of use in a residual analysis
Exercise 11.5: We use Examples 11.15 and 11.16 found in the Statistics for Business and Economics text.
The data for the grandfather clock example used throughout this chapter are repeated in Table 11.9 in the text (and below in Table 11.7), with one important difference: The auction price of the clock at the top of the second column has been changed from $2,131 to 1,131. The interaction model
y = ?_{0} + ?_{1}x_{1} + ?_{2}x_{2} + ?_{3}x_{1}x_{2} + ?
is again fit to these (modified) data. Use PHStat to generate all corresponding residual analysis printouts.
Table 11.7
Age(x_{1}) 127 115  valign="top"> Number of Bidders (x_{2}) 13 12  Auction Price (y) 1,235 1,080  Age(x_{1})  Number of Bidders (x_{2})  Auction Price (y) 
170  14  1,131  
182  8  1,550  
127  7  845  162  11  1,884 
150  9  1,522  184  10  2,041 
156  6  1,047  143  6  845 
182  11  1,979  159  9  1,483 
156  12  1,822  108  14  1,055 
132  10  1,253  175  8  1,545 
137  9  1,297  108  6  729 
113  9  946  179  9  1,792 
137  15  1,713  111  15  1,175 
117  11  1,024  187  8  1,593 
137  8  1,147  111  7  785 
153  6  1,092  115  7  744 
117  13  1,152  194  5  1,356 
126  10  1,336  168  7  1,262 
Solution: The first step in this solution is to fit the proposed regression model to the modified grandfather clock data. We will follow closely the Excel instructions used in Exercise 11.3 and change only the requested residual analysis output.
In order to fit a regression model that includes an interaction term, this term must be added to the data set in our Excel file. We refer the reader to Sections P.9 and P.10 to use formulas within Excel to create the desired age*bidder interaction term. Once created, the data look like the data shown in Table 11.8 below:
Table 11.8
Age (x1)  Number of Bidders (x2)  Age*Bidders (x1*x2)  Auction Price (y) 
127  13  1651  $1,235 
115  12  1380  $1,080 
127  7  889  $845 
150  9  1350  $1,522 
156  6  936  $1,047 
182  11  2002  $1,979 
156  12  1872  $1,822 
132  10  1320  $1,253 
137  9  1233  $1,297 
113  9  1017  $946 
137  15  2055  $1,713 
117  11  1287  $1,024 
137  8  1096  $1,147 
.  .  .  . 
.  .  .  . 
.  .  .  . 
Once the data set includes the interaction variable, choose the Regression option within the PHStat menu. Select the Multiple Regression optionfrom those listed. You should now be looking at the same Simple Linear Regression menu shown in Figure 11.7.
Figure 11.7
We use this menu to generate both the regression output that we need and the residual analysis information that is desired in this. The user needs to enter the location of the two variables of interests (labeled as the Y variable and the X variable), and select all of the Regression Tool Output Options listed in the menu. Begin by entering the column where the dependent variable is located in the Y Variable Cell Range of this menu (see Figure 11.8). Enter the column where the independent variables are located in the X Variables Cell Range. This can be done by typing the location or by clicking and dragging over the appropriate data cells in your workbook. You have the option of including the variable name in the first cell of data. The user can also specify an optional title for the output. Checkthe Regression Statistics Table, the ANOVA and Coefficients Table, the Residuals Table, and the Residual Plots options and click OK. The output generated by PHStat is shown in Tables 11.9 and 11.10 and Figures 11.9, 11.10, and 11.11.
Figure 11.8
Our purpose in this section is to illustrate the different types of PHStat output that are available and to give the commands necessary to generate these output. We will refer you to section 11.11 of the text for information regarding the assessment and interpretation of these printouts. We point out here the various output generated by the different options within PHStat.
We begin with the standard regression output generated by PHStat (see Table 11.9). This output includes the summary output table, the ANOVA table for the proposed regression model, and the individual coefficient estimates along with their corresponding confidence and test of hypothesis information. This output is provided whenever a regression model is specified in the Regression menu of PHStat. No residual option needs to be specified in order to generate this standard regression output.
Table 11.9
SUMMARY OUTPUT  
Regression Statistics  
Multiple R  0.85391853  
R Square  0.72917685  
Adjusted R Square  0.70016009  
Standard Error  200.597562  
Observations  32  
ANOVA  
df  SS  MS  F  Sign. F  
Regression  3  3033586.804  1011196  25.1295  4.2774E08  
Residual  28  1126702.696  40239.38  
Total  31  4160289.5  
Coefficients Standard Error  t Stat  Pvalue  Lower 95%  Upper 95%  Lower 95.0%  Upper 95.0%  
Intercept  512.81017 665.8600588  0.77015  0.447662  1876.7642  851.143862  1876.7642  851.1438618  
AGE X1  8.16507852 4.584690573  1.780944  0.085775  1.2262449  17.556402  1.22624494  17.55640198  
BIDDERS X2  19.8876621 67.4376453  0.294904  0.770242  118.25225  158.027572  118.252247  158.0275715  
AGE*BID, X1*X2  0.31964386 0.47903768  0.667262  0.510067  0.6616214  1.30090916  0.66162145  1.300909165 
The Residuals option asks PHStat to compute these values and display them in tabular form. Table 11.10 provides the requested information for this example. We refer the reader to Section 11.11 of Statistics for Business and Economics for more details regarding how this table can be used in the residual analysis portion of a regression analysis.
Table 11.10
RESIDUAL OUTPUT  
Observation  Predicted Auction Price (y)  Residuals 
1  1310.426418  75.42641826 
2  1105.934329  25.93432854 
3  947.531826  102.531826 
4  1322.459774  199.5402255 
5  1179.454702  132.4547022 
6  1831.925406  147.0745936 
7  1597.967326  224.0326744 
8  1185.786708  67.2132924 
9 </td>  1178.915422  118.0845776 
10  913.9104648  32.08953518 
11  1560.988646  152.0113539 
12  1072.649945  48.64994469 
13  1115.236552  31.76344818 
14  1149.205877  57.20587718 
15  1187.221932  35.22193162 
16  1117.617605  218.382395 
17  1914.432829  783.4328287 
18  1597.736874  47.73687377 
19  1598.302187  285.6978126 
20  1776.585596  264.4144036 
21  1048.376461  203.3764606 
22  1421.836634  61.16336641 
23  1130.747092  75.74709239 
24  1522.681268  22.31873186 
25  695.4735024  33.52649759 
26  1642.674098  149.3259017 
27  1224.0355  49.03550027 
28  1651.348021  58.34802065 
29  781.0904577  3.909542288 
30  822.7007998  78.70079979 
31  1480.707915  124.7079148 
32  1374.037832  112.0378323 
The Residual Plots option in the Regression menu of Excel plots the residuals calculated by Excel versus the independent variables that were hypothesized in the regression model. Figure 11.9 shows the residuals plotted against independent variables x_{1} and x_{2}. We note here that a residual plot versus the interaction term x_{1}x_{2} is also generated by Excel but not reproduced here. Please refer to Section 11.11 of Statistics for Business and Economics for more details regarding how these plots can be used in the residual analysis portion of a regression analysis.
Figure 11.9
These are the two residual analysis outputs that PHStat generates for the user. There are, however, two additional graphs that are useful to the user in a residual analysis. The first is a residual plot that is helpful for analyzing the equal variance assumption in the regression analysis. The second is a stemandleaf display of the residuals that is helpful for checking the normality assumption of the random errors. While neither plot is given automatically by PHStat, both are easy to generate given the tools available within PHStat. We refer the reader to the sections on generating scatterplots and stemandleaf displays to find the directions for generating these graphs. These two outputs are shown below in Figures 11.10 and 11.11.
Figure 11.10
Figure 11.11
StemandLeaf Display of Residuals Stem unit: 100 7 8  
6 5 4 3 2  0 
1  3 2 1 0 
0  8 8 8 6 6 5 5 5 4 3 
0  0 2 3 3 3 6 7 
1  2 5 5 5 10 
2  2 2 6 9 
We refer the reader to Section 11.11 of Statistics for Business and Economics for more details regarding how these outputs can be used in the residual analysis portion of a regression analysis.
Chapter 11: Technology Lab 163
Technology Lab
The following exercise from the Statistics for Business and Economics text is given for you to practice the procedure covered in the text that is available within PHStat. Included with the exercise is the PHStat output that was generated to solve the problem.
11.142 A firm that has developed a new type of light bulb is interested in evaluating its performance in order to decide whether to market it. It is known that the light output of the bulb depends on the cleanliness of its surface area and the length of time the bulb has been in operation. Use the data in the table at right and the procedures you learned in this chapter to build a regression model that relates drop in light output to bulb surface cleanliness and length of operation. Be sure to conduct a residual analysis also.
PHStat Output
SBE Exercise 11.142  
Regression Statistics  
Multiple R  0.92471733  
R Square  0.85510214  
Adjusted R Square  0.828757074  
Standard Error  5.391039945  
Observations  14  
ANOVA  
df  SS  MS  F  Significance F  
Regression  2  1886.660714  943.330357  32.457772  2.4313E05  
Residual  11  319.6964286  29.0633117  
Total  13  2206.357143  
Coefficients Standard Error  t Stat  Pvalue  Lower 95%  Upper 95%  
Intercept  12.80357143 2.970318341  4.31050479  0.0012341  6.26594153  19.3412013  
Bulb Surface  17.28571429 2.881632062  5.9985848  8.944E05  23.628147  10.943282  
Length of Operation  0.0096875 0.00180102  5.37889629  0.0002237  0.00572348  0.01365152 
RESIDUAL OUTPUT 
Observation Predicted Drop Residuals in Output 
1 12.80357143 12.8035714 2 16.67857143 0.67857143 3 20.55357143 1.44642857 4 24.42857143 2.57142857 5 28.30357143 3.69642857 6 32.17857143 3.82142857 7 36.05357143 1.94642857 8 4.482142857 4.48214286 9 0.607142857 4.60714286 10 3.267857143 2.73214286 11 7.142857143 0.85714286 12 11.01785714 2.01785714 13 14.89285714 3.89285714 14 18.76785714 6.76785714 
Chapter 11: Technology Lab 165
StemandLeaf Display for Residuals Stem unit: 1 13 0  
12 11 10 9 8 7 6  8 
5 4 3  9 
2  0 
1 0  7 
0  9 
1  4 9 
2  6 7 
3  7 8 
4  5 6 
Chapter 12
Methods of Quality Improvement
12.1 Introduction
Chapter 12 introduces the topic of quality improvement to the reader. The main topic covered in the text involves using scatter plots to create control charts that monitor the outcomes of a statistical process. These control charts specify upper and lower limits on the plot inside which the process is expected to stay. By using control charts, the user has a valid statistical tool that enables him/her to identify when a process is decreasing in quality. PHStat offers three different types of control charts for the user. They are the x , R, and pcharts. The following examples from Statistics for Business and Economics are solved with PHStat in this chapter.
Excel Companion  Statistics for Business and Economics 
Exercise Page  Example 
12.1 167  Example 12.1/12.3 
12.2 170  Example 12.4 
12.2 Constructing RCharts andxCharts
The PHStat program allows for construction of the x chart only in conjunction with the Rchart. To create both of these charts within PHStat, open a new workbook and place the cursor in the upper left cell of the worksheet. Click on the PHStat menu at the top of the screen. Select the Control Charts option from the choices available and then select the R & XBar Charts option from those listed. You should open the R & XBar Charts menu that looks like the one shown in Figure 12.1.
Figure 12.1
166
Section 12.2: Constructing RCharts andx
The user is required to enter the Subgroup/Sample Size and specify the location of the Subgroup Ranges (if only the RChart is desired) and the location of the Subgroup Means (if both the x chart and Rcharts are desired). The type of charts desired must be specified in the Chart Options section of the menu An Output Title can be optionally selected if the user so desires. Click OK to finish. We illustrate with the next example.
Exercise 12.1: We combine Examples 12.1 and Example 12.3 found in the Statistics for Business and Economics text.
Let's return to the paintfilling process described in Sections 12.2 and 12.3 of the text. Suppose instead of sampling 50 consecutive gallons of paint from the filling process to develop a control chart, it was decided to sample five consecutive cans once each hour for the next 25 hours. The sample data are presented in Table 12.1. This sampling strategy (rational subgrouping) was selected because several times a month the filling head in question becomes clogged. When that happens, the head dispenses less and less paint over the course of the day. However, the pattern of decrease is so irregular that minutetominute or even halfhourtohalfhour changes are difficult to detect.
a. Construct an x chart for the process using the data below (from Example 12.1 in the text).
b. Construct an Rchart for the process using the data below (from Example 12.2 in the text).
Table 12.1
Sample  Measurements  Mean  Range  
1  10.0042  9.9981  10.001  9.9964  10.0001  9.99995  0.0078 
2  > 9.995  9.9986  9.9948  10.003  9.9938  9.99704  0.0092 
3  10.0028  9.9998  10.0086  9.9949  9.998  10.00082  0.0137 
4  9.9952  9.9923  10.0034  9.9965  10.0026  9.998  0.0111 
5  9.9997  9.9983  9.9975  10.0078  9.9891  9.99649  0.0195 
6  9.9987  10.0027  10.0001  10.0027  10.0029  10.00141  0.0042 
7  10.0004  10.0023  10.0024  9.9992  10.0135  10.00358  0.0143 
8  10.0013  9.9938  10.0017  10.0089  10.0001  10.00116  0.0151 
9  10.0103  10.0009  9.9969  10.0103  9.9986  10.00339  0.0134 
10  9.998  9.9954  9.9941  9.9958  9.9963  9.99594  0.0039 
11  10.0013  10.0033  9.9943  9.9949  9.9999  9.99874  0.009 
12  9.9986  9.999  10.0009  9.9947  10.0008  9.99882  0.0062 
13  10.0089  10.0056  9.9976  9.9997  9.9922  10.0008  0.0167 
14  9.9971  10.0015  9.9962  10.0038  10.0022  10.00016  0.0076 
15  9.9949  10.0011  10.0043  9.9988  9.9919  9.99822  0.0124 
16  9.9951  9.9957  10.0094  10.004  9.9974  10.00033  0.0137 
17  10.0015  10.0026  10.0032  9.9971  10.0019  10.00127  0.0061 
18  9.9983  10.0019  9.9978  9.9997  10.0029  10.0013  0.0051 
19  9.9977  9.9963  9.9981  9.9968  10.0009  9.99798  0.0127 
20  10.0078  10.0004  9.9966  10.0051  10.0007  10.00212  0.0112 
21  9.9963  9.999  10.0037  9.9936  9.9962  9.99764  0.0101 
22  9.9999  10.0022  10.0057  10.0026  10.0032  10.00272  0.0058 
23  9.9998  10.0002  9.9978  9.9966  10.006  10.00009  0.0094 
24  10.0031  10.0078  9.9988  10.0032  9.9944  10.00146  0.0134 
25  9.9993  9.9978  9.9964  10.0032  10.0041  10.00015  0.0077 
Solution:
We begin by opening the data file SBE Example 12.1 to access the data. Next, click on the PHStat menu at the top of the screen. Select the Control Charts option from the choices available and then select the R & XBar Charts option from those listed. We enter the Subgroup/Sample Size of 5 (see Figure 12.2) and we choose the R and XBar Charts in the Chart Options section of the menu. We specify the location of both the Subgroup Ranges and the location of the Subgroup Means. We add an Output Title and click OK to finish. The charts are shown in Figures 12.3 and 12.4 below.
Figure 12.2
Figure 12.3
Section 12.3: Constructing pCharts 169Figure 12.4
We refer the reader to Chapter 12 in the Statistics for Business and Economics text regarding information on how to read and interpret these control charts.
12.3 Constructing pCharts
The PHStat program allows for construction of the pchart for charting the proportion of defectives in a process. To create the pchart within PHStat, open a new workbook and place the cursor in the upper left cell of the worksheet. Click on the PHStat menu at the top of the screen. Select the Control Charts option from the choices available and then select the p Chart option from those listed. You should open the p Chart menu that looks like the one shown in Figure 12.5.
Figure 12.5
The user is required to enter the NonConformances Cell Range and specify the whether the Samples/Subgroups have equal or unequal sample sizes. If equal, the user is asked to specify the sample size. If unequal, the user must specify the location of these sample sizes. An Output Title can be optionally selected if the user so desires. Click OK to finish. We illustrate with the next example.
Exercise 12.2: We use Examples 12.4 found in the Statistics for Business and Economics text.
A manufacturer of auto parts is interested in implementing statistical process control in several areas within its warehouse operation. The manufacturer wants to begin with the order assembly process. Too frequently orders received by customers contain the wrong items or too few items.
For each order received, parts are picked from storage bins in the warehouse, labeled, and placed on a conveyor belt system. Since the bins are spread over a threeacre area, items that are part of the same order may be placed on different spurs of the conveyor belt system. Near the end of the belt system all spurs converge and a worker sorts the items according to the order they belong to. That information is contained on labels that were placed on the items by the pickers.
The workers have identified three errors that cause shipments to be improperly assembled: (1) pickers pick from the wrong bin, (2) pickers mislabel items, and (3) the sorter makes an error.
The firm's quality manager has implemented a sampling program in which 90 assembled orders are sampled each day and checked for accuracy. An assembled order is considered nonconforming (defective) if it differs in any way from the order placed by the customer. To date, 25 samples have been evaluated. The resulting data are shown in Table 12.2. Construct a pchart for the order assembly operation.
Section 12.3: Constructing pCharts 171Table 12.2
Sample  Size  Defective Orders  Sample Proportion 
1  90  12  0.13333 
2  90  6  0.06667 
3  90  11  0.12222 
4  90  8  0.08889 
5  90  13  0.14444 
6  90  14  0.15556 
7  90  12  0.13333 
8  90  6  0.06667 
9  90  10  0.11111 
10  90  13  0.14444 
11  90  12  0.13333 
12  90  24  0.26667 
13  90  23  0.25556 
14  90  22  0.24444 
15  90  8  0.08889 
16  90  3  0.03333 
17  90  11  0.12222 
18  90  14  0.15556 
19  90  5  0.05556 
20  90  12  0.13333 
21  90  18  0.20000 
22  90  12  0.13333 
23  90  13  0.14444 
24  90  4  0.04444 
25  90  6  0.06667 
Totals  2,250  292 
Solution:
We begin by opening the data file SBE Example 12.4 to access the data. Next, click on the PHStat menu at the top of the screen. Select the Control Charts option from the choices available and then select the p Chart option from those listed. Since the data from this problem all contain samples of size 90, we select the Size does not vary Sample/Subgroup option and specify a Sample/Subgroup Size of 90 (see Figure 12.6). We specify the location of the NonConformances in the cell range location in the menu. We add an Output Title and click OK to finish. The chart is shown in Figure 12.7 below.
Figure 12.6
Figure 12.7
We refer the reader to Chapter 12 in the Statistics for Business and Economics text regarding information on how to read and interpret this control chart.
Chapter 12: Technology Lab 173
Technology Lab
The following exercises from the Statistics for Business and Economics text are given for you to practice the control chart procedures that are available within PHStat. Included with the exercises are the PHStat outputs that were generated to solve the problems.
12.73 Officials at Mountain Airlines are interested in monitoring the length of time customers wait in line to check in at their airport counter in Reno, Nevada. In order to develop a control chart, five customers were sampled each day for 20 days. The data, in minutes, are presented below (file SBE Exercise 12.73).
Sample  Waiting Times  
1  3.20  6.70  1.30  8.40  2.20 
2  5.00  4.10  7.90  8.10  0.40 
3  7.10  3.20  2.10  6.50  3.70 
4  4.20  1.60  2.70  7.20  1.40 
5  1.70  7.10  1.60  0.90  1.80 
6  4.70  5.50  1.60  3.90  4.00 
7  6.20  2.00  1.20  0.90  1.40 
8  1.40  2.70  3.80  4.60  3.80 
9  1.10  4.30  9.10  3.10  2.70 
10  5.30  4.10  9.80  2.90  2.70 
11  3.20  2.90  4.10  5.60  0.80 
12  2.40  4.30  6.70  1.90  4.80 
13  8.80  5.30  6.60  1.00  4.50 
14  3.70  3.60  2.00  2.70  5.90 
15  1.00  1.90  6.50  3.30  4.70 
16  7.00  4.00  4.90  4.40  4.70 
17  5.50  7.10  2.10  0.90  2.80 
18  1.80  5.60  2.20  1.70  2.10 
19  2.60  3.70  4.80  1.40  5.80 
20  3.60  0.80  5.10  4.70  6.30 
a. Construct an Rchart from these data.
d. Construct an x chart from these data.
PHStat Output
Chapter 12: Technology Lab 175
12.75 A company called CRW runs credit checks for a large number of banks and insurance companies. Credit history information is typed into computer files by trained administrative assistants. The company is interested in monitoring the proportion of credit histories that contain one or more data entry errors. Based on her experience with the data entry operation, the director of the data processing unit believes that the proportion of histories with data entry errors is about 6%. CRW audited 150 randomly selected credit histories each day for 20 days. The sample data are presented below.
Sample  Sample Size  Histories with Errors 
1  150  9 
2  150  11 
3  150  12 
4  150  8 
5  150  10 
6  150  6 
7  150  13 
8  150  9 
9  150  11 
10  150  5 
11  150  7 
12  150  6 
13  150  12 
14  150  10 
15  150  11 
16  150  7 
17  150  6 
18  150  12 
19  150  14 
20  150  10 
b. Construct a pchart for the data entry process.
PHStat Output
Chapter 13
Time Series: Descriptive Analyses,
Models, and Forecasting
13.1 Introduction
Chapter 13 of the Statistics for Business and Economics text introduces the reader to the topic of Time Series Analysis. Descriptive analyses, time series modeling, and time series forecasting are the three main time series areas covered by the text.
While PHStat does not offer the user any time series techniques, Excel offers a variety of methods that enable the user to work with times series data. Many, like simple data manipulation, scatter plots, and regression analysis, have been encountered in one of the previous chapters of this manual. We reference these topics when we look at how they can be applied to times series data. Excel also offers times series tools that are not covered in the Statistics for Business and Economics text. Moving averages, Seasonal Indexes, and Cyclical Effects are topics offered within Excel but not covered in the text. We refer the reader to a more comprehensive text on time series analysis for information concerning these topics.
One other Excel data analysis tool, exponential smoothing, will be introduced in this chapter and needs further discussion here. The exponential smoothing technique that Excel offers differs from the exponential smoothing technique discussed in the book. There are many smoothing techniques available and the generic ‘exponential’ label is misleading. For the purpose of this manual, we do not utilize the Excel exponential smoothing data analysis tool. We, instead, use simple formula manipulation of the time series data to get the desired exponentially smoothed values that are discussed in the text.
There are several time series topics, however, that Excel is unable to provide assistance with. Section 13.5 of the text introduces the HoltWinters forecasting model, an extension of the exponential smoothing topic covered in Section 13.2. Excel provides no data analysis tool to handle this more complicated smoothing model. In addition, the topic of measuring forecast accuracy (Section 13.6) has no Excel equivalent data analysis tool. And, finally, the DurbinWatson test for autocorrelation is also not covered in Excel.
We will use the chapter examples that are given in the text to illustrate the model building and testing methods discussed above. The following examples from Statistics for business and Economics are solved with Microsoft Excel® in the Chapter:
Excel Companion Statistics for Business and Economics Exercise Page Example
13.1 177 Example 13.1
13.2 182 Example 13.2
13.3 182 Example 13.3
13.4 183 Example 13.4
176
13.2 Descriptive Analyses: Index Numbers
Index numbers are the most common techniques for characterizing the change in a business or economic data series over time. These indexes can be constructed in a variety of manner. The text introduces the reader to the simple index, the simple composite index, and two different weighted composite indexes (Laspeyres and Paasche indexes). We examine how Excel can be used to generate these indexes in the examples that follow.
Exercise 13.1: We use Example 13.1 found in the Statistics for Business and Economics text.
One of the primary uses of index numbers is to characterize changes in stock prices over time. Stock market indexes have been constructed for many different types of companies and industries, and several composite indexes have been developed to characterize all stocks. These indexes are reported on a daily basis in the news media (e.g. Standard and Poor’s 500 Stick Index and Dow Jones 65 Stock Index).
Consider the monthly closing prices (i.e., closing prices on the last day of each month) given in Table 13.1 for four hightechnology company stocks listed on the New York Stock Exchange between 2004 and 2005. To see how this type of stock fared, construct a simple composite index using January 2004 as the base period. Graph the index, and comment on its implications.
Solution:
Index values are found by taking the value of the series at some point in time and dividing by the value of the series during the base period and then multiplying this ratio by 100. Simple Composite indexes use totals from several different time series as the values in the index ratio. For this problem, we will use Excel to calculate the sum of the monthly closing prices of the listed stocks, and then use Excel to simply divide this sum by the sum found in the base year. The simple composite index will be found by multiplying this ratio by 100.
We use very basic data manipulation techniques within Excel to generate the desired indexes. We begin by opening the Excel file SBE Example 13.1. We will assume that the time series values are located in Columns D  F and Rows 2  25. The Column of totals should appear in Column G of the Excel worksheet. Note that Column B in the data sets has a Month label. This column will be used to create the desired scatter plot. Click on the cell located in Row 2 Column H. Enter =(G2/$G$2)*100 in the cell. Excel should return the value 100 in the H2 cell. Copy the H2 cell to the cells located in Column H Rows 3  25 (e.g. H3  H25). Compare the results returned by Excel (see Table 13.2) to those found in the text. (Note: It is important that the denominator of the formula listed above include the dollar signs as this tells Excel to use the G2 cell as the base level in all subsequent calculations).
Table 13.1
YEAR MONTH TIME IBM INTEL MICROSOFT
2004 JAN 1 99.23 30.52 27.73 FEB 2 96.50 29.20 26.61 MAR 3 91.84 27.20 25.00 APR 4 88.17 25.73 26.20 MAY 5 88.59 28.55 26.30 JUN 6 88.15 27.60 28.64 JUL 7 87.07 24.38 28.57 AUG 8 84.69 21.29 27.38 SEP 9 85.74 20.06 27.73 OCT 10 89.75 22.26 28.05
NOV 11 94.24 22.38 26.81
DEC 12 98.58 23.39 26.72
2005 JAN 13 93.42 22.45 26.28 FEB 14 92.58 23.99 25.16 MAR 15 91.38 23.23 24.17 APR 16 76.38 23.52 25.30 MAY 17 75.55 26.96 25.80 JUN 18 74.20 26.02 24.84 JUL 19 83.46 27.14 25.61 AUG 20 80.62 25.72 27.38 SEP 21 80.22 24.65 25.73 OCT 22 81.88 23.50 25.70
NOV 23 88.90 26.68 27.68
DEC 24 82.20 24.96 26.15
Table 13.2
YEAR MONTH TIME IBM INTEL MICROSOFT TOTAL Index
2004 JAN 1 99.23 30.52 27.73 157.48 100.00 FEB 2 96.50 29.20 26.61 152.31 96.72 MAR 3 91.84 27.20 25.00 144.04 91.47 APR 4 88.17 25.73 26.20 140.10 88.96 MAY 5 88.59 28.55 26.30 143.44 91.08 JUN 6 88.15 27.60 28.64 144.39 91.69 JUL 7 87.07 24.38 28.57 140.02 88.91 AUG 8 84.69 21.29 27.38 133.36 84.68 SEP 9 85.74 20.06 27.73 133.53 84.79 OCT 10 89.75 22.26 28.05 140.06 88.94 NOV 11 94.24 22.38 26.81 143.43 91.08
DEC 12 98.58 23.39 26.72 148.69 94.42
2005 JAN 13 93.42 22.45 26.28 142.15 90.27 FEB 14 92.58 23.99 25.16 141.73 90.00 MAR 15 91.38 23.23 24.17 138.78 88.13 APR 16 76.38 23.52 25.30 125.20 79.50 MAY 17 75.55 26.96 25.80 128.31 81.48 JUN 18 74.20 26.02 24.84 125.06 79.41 JUL 19 83.46 27.14 25.61 136.21 86.49 AUG 20 80.62 25.72 27.38 133.72 84.91 SEP 21 80.22 24.65 25.73 130.60 82.93 OCT 22 81.88 23.50 25.70 131.08 83.24 NOV 23 88.90 26.68 27.68 143.26 90.97
DEC 24 82.20 24.96 26.15 133.31 84.65
The scatter plot can be drawn in Excel using the Chart Wizard that was introduced in Chapter 2 of this manual. Click on the Chart Wizard icon that is located at the top of the Excel worksheet (see Figure 13.1). Highlight the Line Chart type and select the desired Chart subtype that you desire. Click Next.
Figure 13.1
Enter the range of the data to be charted in the Data Range area of the menu (see Figure 13.2). Specify whether the data are listed in rows or columns by indicating the appropriate selection. Click Next.
The remaining Chart Wizard menus allow the user to customize the way the resulting line plot appears. We refer you the Chapter 2 of this manual to find a more thorough discussion of the options available within Excel. See Figure 13.3 for the plot created with Excel for the data of this example. Compare the Excel plot to the one found in the Statistics for Business and Economics text.
Figure 13.2
Figure 13.3
The simple composite index of Example 13.1 is found by summing the values of several times series and dividing by the sum from a base year. Each of the time series is given an equal weight in the simple composite index. Several different types of weighted composite indexes exist and the text discusses two such weighted composite indexes, Laspeyres and Paasche Indexes. We illustrate the Laspeyres Index below.
Exercise 13.2: We use Example 13.2 found in the Statistics for Business and Economics text.
The January prices for the four high technology company stocks are given in Table 13.3. Suppose that, in January 2004, an investor purchased the quantities shown in the table. [Note: Only January prices and quantities are used to simplify the example. The same methods can be applied to calculate the index for other months.] Calculate the Laspeyres index for the investor’s portfolio of hightechnology stocks using January 2004 as the base period.
Table 13.3
IBM Intel Microsoft
Shares Purchased 500 100 1000
January 2001 Price 99.23 30.52 27.73
December 2002 Price 82.20 24.96 26.15
The first step in finding the Laspeyres indexes is to calculate the weighted price totals for each time period, using the January 2004 quantities as the weights. We begin by opening the Excel file SBE Example 13.2. We will assume the weights are located in Column B  D, Row 2 in the worksheet and the time series values are located in columns B  D, Rows 3  4. Click on the cell located in Column E, Row 3. Enter =$B$2*B3+$C$2*C3+$D$2*D3 in the cell. Make certain to use the “$” signs whenever you identify the cell locations of the weights. Copy the contents of Cell E3 to all the other cells in which weighted price totals are desired (e.g., Cell e4 in this example). Excel should return the weighted price totals shown below in Table 13.4.
The next step is to calculate the Laspeyres indexes using January 2004 as the base period. Click on the cell located in Column F, Row 3. Enter =(E3/$E$3)*100 in the cell. Copy the contents of Cell F3 to all the other cells in which the Laspeyres indexes are desired (e.g., Cell F4 in this example). Excel should return the Laspeyres indexes shown below in Table 13.4.
Table 13.4
IBM  Intel  Microsoft  Weighted Total  Laspeyres Index  
Shares Purchased  500  100  1000  
January 2004 Price  99.23  30.52  27.73  80,397  100.00 
December 2005 Price  82.2  24.96  26.15  69,746  86.75 
Compare the results returned by Excel to those found in of the text.
As we have seen in the last example, the Laspeyres Index uses the quantities of the base period as the weights for all of the average and index values that are calculated. In some instances, it is preferred to use the quantities from the current time period as the weights in the index calculations. One method of achieving these indexes is to use the Paasche index. An example of the Paasche Index follows.
Exercise 13.3: We use Example 13.3 found in the Statistics for Business and Economics text.
Section 13.3: Exponential Smoothing 183
The January 2004 and December 2005 prices and volumes (actual quantities purchased) in millions of shares for the three hightechnology company stocks are shown in Table 13.5. Calculate and interpret the Paasche index, using January 2004 as the base period.
Table 13.5
IBM Intel Microsoft
Price Volume Price Volume Price Volume January 2004 99.23 6.1 30.52 59.5 27.73 63.6
December 2005 82.20 5.4 24.96 54.1 56.15 62.9
Solution
The first step in finding the Paasche indexes in to calculate the weighted price totals for each time period, using the current time period quantities as the weights. We begin by opening the Excel file SBE Example 13.3. Click on the specified cell in the worksheet and enter:
For Q_{Jan04,}P_{Jan04}: =B4*C4+D4*E4+F4*G4 in cell A6
For Q_{Dec05,}P_{Dec05}: =B3*C4+D3*E4+F3*G4in cell A7
For the Paasche index for December, 2005, enter =(A6/A7)*100in cell A9. Excel should return the Paasche index shown below in Table 13.6. Compare the results returned by Excel to those found in the text.
Table 13.6
QJan04,PJan04  3439.1 
QDec05,PDec05  3931.2 
Paasche Index  87.5 
Using indexes is just one method of describing time series data. We turn our attention now towards the use of exponential smoothing as a method to describe times series data.
13.3 Exponential Smoothing
A second method of describing time series data involves averaging past and current data together. The goal of the averaging is to reduce the volatility that is inherent to any time series. Exponential smoothing is one type of averaging method that allows the user to select the amount of weight given to the past and to the present data. This weight, known as the smoothing constant, is selected to be a number between 0 and 1. The larger the value of the smoothing constant, the more weight is given to the most current data value from the time series. We demonstrate with the following example.
Exercise 13.4: We use Example 13.4 found in the Statistics for Business and Economics text.
Consider the IBM common stock price from January 2004 to December 2005, shown in Table 13.7. Create the exponentially smoothes series using w = .5, and plot both series.
Table 13.7
2004  IBM  2005  IBM 
January  99.23  January  93.42 
February  96.50  February  92.58 
March  91.84  March  91.38 
April  88.17  April  76.38 
May  88.59  May  75.55 
June  88.15  June  74.20 
July  87.07  July  83.46 
August  84.69  August  80.62 
September  85.74  September  80.22 
October  89.75  October  81.88 
November  94.24  November  88.90 
December  98.58  December  82.20 
Solution:
We begin by opening Excel file SBE Example 13.4. We will assume that the IBM stock prices appear in Column B, Rows 2  25 of the worksheet. To find the first exponentially smoothed value, enter =B2 in cell C2. To find the second exponentially smoothed value, we enter =.5*B3+(1.5)*C2 in cell C3. We use the value of .5 in this equation because the smoothing constant for this problem is w = .5. Copy the formula of cell C3 to the cells C4 through C25 to obtain the rest of the exponentially smoothed values. Table 13.8 shows the values of the original time series as well as the exponentially smoothed values. Compare these values to the ones found in the text.
Table 13.8
2004 January  IBM 99.23  Smoothed 99.2300  2005 January  IBM 93.42  Smoothed 94.1234 
February  96.50  97.8650  February  92.58  93.3517 
March  91.84  94.8525  March  91.38  92.3658 
April  88.17  91.5113  April  76.38  84.3729 
May  88.59  90.0506  May  75.55  79.9615 
June  88.15  89.1003  June  74.20  77.0807 
July  87.07  88.0852  July  83.46  80.2704 
August  84.69  86.3876  August  80.62  80.4452 
September  85.74  86.0638  September  80.22  80.3326 
October  89.75  87.9069  October  81.88  81.1063 
November  94.24  91.0734  November  88.90  85.0031 
December  98.58  94.8267  December  82.20  83.6016 
Section 13.4: Using Regression to Model Time Series Data 185Figure 13.4
A plot of both the original times series the exponentially smoothed series is shown above in Figure 13.4. Compare this chart to the one shown in the text. Note that any value of a smoothing constant can be used by changing the appropriate values in the formula used to calculate the exponentially smoothed values of the series. The exponentially smoothed values will change depending whether the constant places more weight on the current value of the past values of the time series.
Section 13.5 introduces the reader to a second type of smoothing process, the HoltWinters smoothing model, as a method for forecasting values of a times series. The book gives the necessary formulas that can be used within Excel to find the HoltWinters values. We leave this formula manipulation to the user. We recommend using the last example as a guide and substitute the HoltWinters formulas for those used in the example. Use Example 13.6 from the text to validate your work.
13.4 Using Regression to Model Time Series Data
Sections 13.7 and 13.8 introduce the reader to using regression models to model the linear trend and seasonal variation in time series data. The linear trend component can be modeled by using a measure of the time period as a quantitative variable in the regression. For example, the model E(Y_{t})
= ?_{0} + ?_{1}t can be used to forecast the value of a time series at time period t. This model would assume that the time series values increase linearly over time.
While the linear model discussed above works in some applications, many times series data are affected by some sort of cyclical, or seasonal, influences. This cyclical variation can be modeled in regression using the qualitative variables discussed in Chapter 11. The seasonal component must be identified and explained using qualitative indicator variables. For example, the model
E(Y_{t}) = ?_{0} + ?_{1}t + ?_{2}Q_{1} + ?_{3}Q_{2} + ?_{4}Q_{3} could be used to include both a linear trend (modeled with the quantitative time period variable, t) and a seasonal component (modeled with the three indicator variables Q_{1}, Q_{2}, and Q_{3}). The Q’s in this model would be appropriate if the time series was influenced by some quarterly effect. For a monthly effect, the model would need to include eleven indicator variables.
We will not fit regression models to the time series data of Chapter 13. We remind the user that Excel requires the data set to include all of the independent variables to be included in the regression model. The variables must be in adjacent columns of the Excel worksheet. We refer the user to Chapters 10 and 11 of this manual to review how to fit regression models within Excel. The regression models fit will yield estimates to the values of the time series data of Chapter 13.
Chapter 14
Nonparametric Statistics
14.1 Introduction
Chapter 14 introduces the reader to the topic of nonparametric statistics and gives the reader several different examples of methods to analyze data using the nonparametric techniques. Two of these techniques are available within the PHStat software program. PHStat offers both the Wilcoxon Rank Sum test for independent samples and the KruskalWallis HTest for a Completely Randomized Design.
Both techniques require the user to have access to the data that is being analyzed. After specifying the location of the data, PHStat offers the user an easy method for analyzing the data using these two procedures. The following examples from Statistics for Business and Economics are solved using PHStat in this chapter:
Excel Companion Statistics for Business and Economics Exercise Page Example
14.1 189 Table 14.7
14.2 The Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test for Independent Samples
The Statistics for Business and Economics text offers the Wilcoxon Rank Sum technique for comparing two population means with independent samples. The only procedure available in PHStat is the large sample approximation of the Wilcoxon Rank Sum technique. PHStat allows the user to perform this test of hypothesis when the data has been collected using two random, independent samples. To use the test of hypothesis tool within PHStat, open a new workbook and place the cursor in the upper left cell of the worksheet. Click on the PHStat menu at the top of the screen. Select the TwoSample Tests option from the choices available and then select the Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test option from those listed. You should open the Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test menu that looks like the one shown in Figure 14.1.
The user is required to enter the Level of Significance, the location of the sampled data in the Cell Range area of the menu, and the direction of the test in the Test Options. An Output Title can be optionally selected if the user so desires. Click OK to finish. PHStat gives both the test statistic and the pvalue for the test to the user. None of the examples in the text utilize large independent samples, so this procedure is not illustrated here. See the Technology Lab at the end of the chapter for an example of this procedure.
187
Figure 14.1
14.3 The KruskalWallis HTest for the Completely Randomized Design
The Statistics for Business and Economics text offers the KruskalWallis HTest for comparing population means from samples collected utilizing the completely randomized design. To use the test of hypothesis tool within PHStat, open a new workbook and place the cursor in the upper left cell of the worksheet. Click on the PHStat menu at the top of the screen. Select the MultipleSample Tests option from the choices available and then select the KruskalWallis Rank Test option from those listed. You should open the KruskalWallis Rank Test menu that looks like the one shown in Figure 14.2.
Figure 14.2
Section 14.3: The KruskalWallis HTest for the Completely Randomized Design 189
The user is required to enter the Level of Significance and the location of the sampled data in the Cell Range area of the menu. An Output Title can be optionally selected if the user so desires. Click OK to finish. PHStat gives both the test statistic and the pvalue for the test to the user. We illustrate this technique with the following example.
Example 14.1: Use the data from Table 14.7 of the Statistics for Business and Economics text to determine if the distributions for the number of beds available at the three hospitals differ. Use the KruskalWallis Htest and a .05 level of significance.
Data:
Hospital 1  Hospital 2  Hospital 3 
6  34  13 
38  28  35 
3  42  19 
17  13  4 
11  40  29 
30  31  0 
15  9  7 
16  32  33 
25  39  18 
5  27  24 
Solution:
We first must open the data set SBE Table 14.7 (included on the enclosed data disk). After accessing the KruskalWallis Rank Test menu, we specify ?=.05 Level of Significance and the location of the Sample Data Cell Range (See Figure 14.3). We opt to add the title, SBE Table 14.7. We click OK to finish. The output generated by PHStat is shown in Table 14.1.
Figure 14.2
Compare the value of the test statistic and the pvalue shown here to the values shown on the printout in the Statistics for Business and Economics text.
Table 14.1
SBE Table 14.7
Data
Level of Significance 0.05
Intermediate Calculations
Sum of Squared Ranks/Sample
Size 7680.05
Sum of Sample Sizes 30 Number of Groups 3
Test Result
H Test Statistic 6.097419 Critical Value 5.991476 pValue 0.04742
Reject the null hypothesis
Technology Lab
The following exercises from the Statistics for Business and Economics text are given for you to practice the nonparametric procedures that are available within PHStat. Included with the exercises are the PHStat outputs that were generated to solve the problems.
14.85 A hotel had a problem with people reserving rooms for a weekend and then not honoring their reservations (noshows). As a result, the hotel developed a new reservation and peposit plan that it hoped would reduce the number of noshows. One year after the policy was initiated, management evaluated its effect in comparison with the old policy. Compare the records given in the table on the number of noshows for the 10 nonholiday weekends preceding the institution of the new policy and the 10 nonholiday weekends preceding the evaluation time. Has the situation improved under the new policy? Test at ? = .05.
Before  After 
10  4 
5  3 
3  8 
6  5 
7  6 
11  4 
8  2 
9  5 
6  7 
5  1 
Chapter 14: Technology Lab 191
PHStat Output
Level of Significance  0.05 
Population 1 Sample  
Sample Size  10 
Sum of Ranks  132.5 
Population 2 Sample  
Sample Size  10 
Sum of Ranks  77.5 
Intermediate Calculations  
Total Sample Size n  20 
T1 Test Statistic  132.5 
T1 Mean  105 
Standard Error of T1  13.22876 
Z Test Statistic  2.078805 
TwoTail Test  
Lower Critical Value  1.95996 
Upper Critical Value  1.959963 
pValue  0.037635 
Reject the null hypothesis 
14.88 A savings and loan association is considering three locations in a large city as potential office sites. The company has hired a marketing firm to compare the incomes of people living in the area surrounding each site. The market researchers interview 10 households chosen at random in each area to determine the type of job, length of employment, etc., of those in the households who work. This information enables them to estimate the annual income of each household, as shown in the table (in thousands of dollars).
Site 1  Site 2  Site 3 
34.3  39.3  34.5 
35.5  45.5  29.3 
32.1  50.2  37.2 
29.3  72.1  33.2 
40.5  48.6  32.6 
36.2  42.2  38.3 
43.5  103.5  43.3 
34.7  47.9  36.7 
38.0  41.2  40.0 
35.1  44.0  35.2 
b. Use the appropriate nonparametric test to compare the treatments. Specify the hypotheses and interpret the results in terms of this experiment. Use ? = .05.
PHStat Output
SBE Exercise 14.88  
Data  
Level of Significance  0.05 
Intermediate Calculations  
Sum of Squared Ranks/Sample Size  8477.55 
Sum of Sample Sizes  30 
Number of Groups  3 
Test Result  
H Test Statistic  16.38774 
Critical Value  5.991476 
pValue  0.000276 
Reject the null hypothesis 