Cours de Retargeting

Guide complet pour débuter avec le retargeting principe et mehodes


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Table of Contents

 

01   /   Introduction           3

What is Retargeting?

Why Retargeting is Beneficial

02   /   How Retargeting Works by Device       6

Desktop vs. Mobile

03   /The 6 Types of Retargeting 1004 /Retargeting Best Practices . 13 Getting Started

                                                          During Your Campaign                                                                                                  

05   /   Measuring & Optimizing Performance .   19

06   /   Conclusion ..            25

01 / INTRODUCTION

Everything you need to know about retargeting

 

98% of people visiting your website will leave without converting. Retargeting helps you bring those people back.

In the old days of advertising, the name of the game was reach and frequency. Brands preferred mass media vehicles like television and radio, because they were the easiest means to reach large audiences and build brand awareness. Obviously, this meant the most effective advertising campaigns were dominated by the biggest brands with the largest marketing budgets.  

Recently, the reach and frequency model has been turned on its head. Increased media fragmentation and new tools for reaching people, like retargeting, have evened the playing field. Now, even the smallest mom and pop shop has opportunities to get in front of their target audience and drive awareness at an even faster clip than even the largest brands.

This eBook will cover the basics of retargeting. By the end, you’ll know:

•    What retargeting is and how it works

•    The two primary ways retargeting can help your business

•    An overview of all the major types of retargeting

•    Best practices for getting started, running your campaigns, creating good ads, and measuring and optimizing your performance

What is Retargeting?

   

WHAT IS RETARGETING & WHY IS IT BENEFICIAL?

 

If you were to look at your conversion funnel, how often would you find that a first-time visitor visited your website, viewed a product, and then made a purchase, all on that first visit? Chances are you’d be lucky if you even saw that behavior once.

Making a sale or conversion is a process. Studies have shown that up to 98% of your visitorsleave your website without converting. Another study on the conversion funnel by Google found that oftentimes, it takes several steps for a user to go from visit to conversion, and it’s actually not uncommon for a visitor to take more than 30 steps before making a purchase!

Retargeting helps you tackle this problem head on. It allows you to target and serve ads only to people who’ve previously visited your website, used your mobile app, or in some cases, visited and bought something from a physical retail location. This means you can be very strategic and efficient about who you’re reaching and where you’re spending your marketing budget.

Retargeting provides two primary benefits.

 

IT MAXIMIZES ROI AND KEEPS YOU IN FRONT OF PROSPECTS

 

It’s a powerful direct response tactic that maximizes ROI.

In the environment of conversion funnel chaos mentioned above, no other advertising tactic offers the return that retargeting does. Retargeting offers the most direct and effective means to:

•    Reconnect with your highest value targets – people who’ve previously expressed interest in your offerings

•    Recapture their attention with an effective, compelling message

•    Move them further down the sales funnel Sometimes you might do this to try to drive a direct response, as we outlined in the section above. Other times, though, it also gives you an opportunity to build up your brand’s familiarity with your target audience, and increase the likelihood of a future, indirect action like a Google search or an organic site visit. These indirect effects can be significant. In fact, Comscore found that retargeting campaigns led to a 1046% increase in branded search and a 726% lift in site visitation after four weeks of retargeted ad exposure.

02 /

HOW RETARGETING WORKS BY DEVICE

Desktop vs. Mobile

 

What are “desktop” and “mobile” devices?

When we refer to “desktop” devices, we’re referring to fullfledged computers, desktop workstations, and laptops. “Mobile” refers to smartphones and tablets.

Let’s go into the mechanics of retargeting. We’ll break it down by desktop and mobile devices, because while the processes are similar, the technology is different between the two.

How retargeting works on desktop devices

Tracking Tags and Cookies

Retargeting on desktop devices relies on the use of “tracking tags” and

“cookies.”

First, you place a snippet of JavaScript code, called a “tracking tag”in your web page’s source code. (We’ll go into more detail on this in our Best Practices section.) Once added, the tracking tag places an anonymous cookie in the browser of every person who visits your website. This cookie allows you to “identify” audience segments based on their browsing behavior. The cookie will capture anonymous data about the visitor’s site activity, but it doesn’t capture any sensitive information like the visitor’s name, address, email or any other personally identifiable information.

As mentioned in HubSpot’s “A Beginner’s Guide to Retargeting Ads”blog post, the advantage to using tracking tags is that you can start retargeting new visitors with very targeted ads in near real-time. The downside is that it does require a short ramping up period, where a critical mass of visitors is cookied to create specific audience segments. However, that bar is pretty low. With Perfect Audience, we require that our customers’ cookie pool reaches at least 250 users within a seven-day period before they can launch a retargeting campaign. This helps minimize the lag between starting to test campaigns while simultaneously building up your audience pools.

Lists

Another method for retargeting is by uploading a list of email addresses, and identifying those users on a particular network for retargeting. This is most commonly used on Facebook and Twitter with their respective Custom Audiences and Tailored Audiences products.

The benefit of list-based retargeting is that it lets you choose a very customized audience for retargeting. If you’ve built a list of your top-spending customers, you can upload that list and target them specifically.

There are a couple downsides to list-based retargeting, though. The first is that the effectiveness of your retargeting efforts depends on the success of your match rate. It’s not uncommon for people to use one email address with a retailer, and another one for their Facebook or Twitter accounts. So, your match rates can vary significantly, from as high as 70-80% down to as low as 2030%. List-based retargeting is also not nearly as dynamic and evergreen as retargeting with tracking tags, because it requires you to continuously re-upload new lists as the membership evolves.

 

How retargeting works on mobile devices

While not as prevalent as desktop retargeting yet, mobile retargeting is quickly gaining popularity. In fact, total mobile internet ad spending is expected to eclipse desktop internet ad spending by 20163. However, one of the challenges with mobile retargeting is that it’s more difficult to identify users on their phones and tablets, because they typically don’t allow for third-party cookies.

So how exactly do retargeting platforms recognize people on their phones and tablets and retarget them? There are two main ways: probabilistic and deterministic matching.

 

PROBABILISTIC MATCHING & DETERMINISTIC MATCHING

 

Probabilistic matching with nonpersonally identifiable information: Although mobile devices don’t allow for cookies, there is still a ton of information marketers can collect about their mobile users – information like location data, IP information, device and browser type, and so forth. Retargeting platforms take thousands of these signals and start making correlations between different devices. This type of device matching is called probabilistic matching, and relies on algorithms to piece together a single identity based on thousands of non-personally identifiable data points.

The benefit of probabilistic matching is it increases your retargeting pool, because you can leverage information you capture about every person who visits your website, mobile website, or mobile app. The downside is that because it’s essentially a “best guess”, its accuracy can vary. Probabilistic matching has been quoted as high as 90% accurate, but generally sits in the 60-70% range. However, this percentage has been improving steadily.



Deterministic matching with personally identifiable information: The alternative method of matching devices uses personally identifiable information.

This is known as deterministic matching.


 

3

PROBABILISTIC MATCHING

 

Deterministic matching ties devices together using a mix of user and device IDs. User IDs can include login IDs, such as a Facebook or Twitter account, and CRM-level first-party data such as email addresses or customer IDs. That information is tied together alongside device IDs, such as Apple’s IDFA for iOS devices and Google’s Advertising ID for Android devices, which act like a device-specific cookie that enables advertisers to identify and target users.

 

The benefit of deterministic matching is that it’s more accurate than probabilistic matching. You have near certainty that the user who logs in on their phone and their laptop is the same person. The main downside is that, because it relies on login data, the retargeting pool is much smaller.

Diving into the mechanics of how all this is done can get confusing. But the good news is when you use a retargeting platform, you don’t need to worry about making an either/or decision. Most providers use a combination of both approaches to maximize the benefits and minimize the downsides.

03 /

THE TYPES OF RETARGETING

6 Key Techniques

 

1.    Site

Retargeting can be done in a number of different ways. Let’s go down the

2.    Emaillist of some of the major retargeting methods.

3.    Dynamic

4.    Mobile

5.    SearchSITE

6.    CRMIf your online activities are centered around your website, then site retargeting

will be your bread and butter tactic. Site retargeting allows you to serve people ads based on the actions they take on your website. These actions include what pages they visit, the types of products they’ve viewed, and even whether they’ve added items to their shopping cart. Once you’ve created these audiences, you can then reach them on social networks like Facebook and Twitter, as well as websites across the Internet like CNN, Yahoo, and .

EMAIL

Email retargeting allows you to retarget users when they’ve opened an email you’ve sent to them. While nice in theory, in practice, email retargeting can be ineffective because desktop email clients like Outlook, and online email services like Gmail, will block the tracking pixel from being downloaded. However, one way to make email retargeting more effective is to complement it by retargeting visitors to your email landing pages.


DYNAMIC

Standard retargeting campaigns serve static ads. That means the content of the ad is unchanging and will serve to some broad subsection of the targeted audience.

Dynamic retargeting is an e-commerce specific flavor of retargeting that lets you personalize every ad impression you serve to your customers. Each impression features products or content your visitors have previously viewed and expressed interest in.

Dynamic retargeting not only allows you to deliver more personalized ads to your visitors, but it also saves you a ton of time. Because it automatically pulls in data from your product feed like the product image, product name, brand name, price, and so forth, you don’t have to worry about creating different ads for each variation of your products.

MOBILE

Mobile retargeting, sometimes called crossdevice retargeting, lets you retarget users on their mobile devices through banner ads, interstitials, and even video ads within mobile apps and on the mobile web.

Sometimes the audiences you target might be people who’ve downloaded and used your mobile app. Other times, they might be people who’ve previously visited your desktop website (thus the “cross-device” moniker).

Cross-device retargeting allows you to retarget people who visit your desktop website with ads served on their smartphones and tablets. This is essential to keeping your brand in front of your customers throughout the day, because it’s not just the aggregate time your users spend on their mobile devices, but how many times they check their mobile devices. An October 2014 report released by Tecmark on the UK

population found that the average person

 

4

 

4 checks their phone over 200 times a day.

 

SEARCH

Search retargeting can take a couple different forms.

Advertisers can target based on search intent, in which users’ search keywords are captured, categorized, and used to help inform the retargeting strategy for people who’ve visited your website. Search intent data provides some of the best information for why a user visits a particular page or product. For example, you might capture search data that indicates that a person visited the site searching for “sales” or “deals” and retarget those people with messaging that highlights a big seasonal sale. In another context, you might find that a person came to your site searching for a particular product or brand, and in response, you might tailor the creative to focus on product/brand benefits. Search intent offers you a greater degree of control over targeting and personalization.

The second form of search retargeting involves “retargeting” users based on search terms on third-party sites. In this case, it would be more accurate to call this search “prospecting,” as it involves targeting users who have not previously visited your web page.

CRM

CRM retargeting is also sometimes referred to as list targeting. It allows you to upload CRM data - like a list of email addresses along with online cookie data - in order to retarget users across the web.

 

04 /

RETARGETING BEST PRACTICES

Set yourself up for success

 

“The average app churns

80% of its users.”

- Andrew Chen, Uber,

Supply Growth

In this section we’ll give you some tips on getting started and getting the most from your retargeting campaigns. By no means is this a definitive list – you’ll find a lot more great tips floating on the web – but becoming a retargeting ninja is a process of crawling, walking, and then running. We’d start with the recommendations below, start learning and test more advanced strategies as you become more familiar and comfortable.

In this section, you’ll learn how to:

1.   GET STARTED

•    Install the site tracking tag

•    Connect your product feed

•    Install the mobile SDK

•    Build four basic audience segments

•    Create unique mobile audiences (for marketers with mobile apps)

2.   RUN YOUR CAMPAIGN

•    Run campaigns across multiple channels

•    Maximize your reach by reaching your audiences across devices

•    When competition heats up, increase your CPM bids

•    Geotargetinug to get local

•    Retarget your landing pages

B

 

1. GETTING STARTED

 

efore you can start retargeting, you’ll need to take care of a few housecleaning items.

1)   Install the site tracking tagThe very first thing you need to do is install the site tracking tag on the website where you want to cookie visitors. You’ll also want to place this tracking tag on every page of your website even if you intend to start off small by retargeting just a single audience. By tagging every page on your site, you’ll future-proof yourself and save a lot of time and effort as you ramp up your retargeting efforts.

2)   Connect your product feed

If you have a product feed, you’ll also want to connect it to your retargeting platform. This will enable you to dynamically retarget visitors based on the products they view.

3)   Install the mobile SDKIf you have a mobile app, some retargeting platforms like Perfect Audience offer an option to install a mobile advertising SDK. You’ll want to install the SDK if you want to retarget your mobile audiences. The mobile SDK works similarly to the tracking tag, but it’s specifically for your mobile app. It allows you to track and automatically build audiences based on in-app behaviors like whether a user has viewed a product, reached a particular level in a game, or purchased an item. It also offers the added benefit of better in-app conversion tracking, so you get a more accurate picture of your mobile retargeting performance.

4)   Build four basic audience segmentsWhen you create an account in Perfect Audience, an “all visitors” audience segment is created by default. This is a great audience to target if you’re trying to drive brand awareness. However, you’ll also want to get more specific and create a few more, targeted audience segments.

Here are three more audiences you should create:

•     Product Viewers – these are visitors who’ve looked at a particular product or service page. This segment represents people who are likely mid-funnel, having expressed some interest in your offering, but could be pushed further along the conversion cycle.



 

GETTING STARTED, CON’T.

 

•     Shopping Cart Abandoners – these

are visitors who visited your site, added a product to their shopping cart, but then left the site without completing the purchase. We know that customers abandon their shopping carts at a high rate. In fact, two out of three potential shoppers who add an item to their cart will leave the site without completing a purchase. This segment represents people who are at the bottom of your conversion funnel, are most likely to make a purchase decision in the near future.

•     Conversions – these are people who visited your site, added a product to their shopping cart, and actually completed the purchase. Why would you want to create an audience segment of people who’ve already converted? Well, it opens up a couple opportunities. For one, it can help you be more efficient with where you spend your money by excluding these people from any of your retargeting campaigns. Alternatively, your existing customers represent your highest-value users, and you can try

to drive incremental sales by targeting this segment with cross-sell or upsell messaging.

5) Create unique mobile audiences (for marketers with mobile apps) The average mobile app loses 80% of its users within a month of installation. Retargeting gives you an opportunity to reengage those lost users.

As you’re planning to install a mobile SDK, as mentioned above, you’ll want to think about what types of mobile audiences might be worth retargeting. Some of these audiences will be identical to the desktop audiences you create, while others will be unique to the medium. These audiences can include users who:

•    Are using your app for the first time

•    View a product

•    Place an item in their cart

•    Make a purchase

•    Log in

•    Reach a specific level

•    Take a specific action e.g., a search or check-in

O

 

2. RUNNING YOUR CAMPAIGNS

 

nce you’ve created your audiences, now comes the fun

part – running your campaigns. Here are a few recommendations.

1)     Run campaigns across multiple channelsWhen reaching your users, don’t limit yourself to a particular channel or website. Whether it’s Google, Facebook, or Twitter, even the most popular websites represent just a sliver of a typical person’s online activity. The best bet for maximizing conversions and revenue is by reaching your visitors across as many sites and channels as possible. One of the benefits of using a broad retargeting platform like Perfect Audience is that it allows you to retarget users across multiple channels within a single user interface.

2)     Maximize your reach by reaching your audiences across devices

A corollary to the retargeting across multiple channels practice is to also retarget across multiple devices. You’re missing out on a huge opportunity if you’re not including mobile in your retargeting campaigns. As mentioned earlier, consumers spend more time on their mobile devices than they do on desktop devices today. However, most marketers still spend most of their budgets on desktop. You can get ahead of the game by adding cross-device targeting to your arsenal and reaching your desktop visitors on their mobile devices.

3)     When competition heats up, increase your CPM bids

During seasons of increased competitive activity, like the holidays, you’ll start seeing that you’re reaching less people and serving fewer impressions with the same level of budget. This happens because competition increases during these periods and overall CPMs rise. Accordingly, you’ll want to increase your CPMs across your retargeting campaigns to ensure you’re bidding enough to stay in front of your potential customers.

As a rule of thumb, increase your CPMs by 50-100% above their typical average to maintain a similar level of presence during these times.

 

RUNNING YOUR CAMPAIGNS, CON’T.

 

4)     Try geotargeting to get localGeotargeting helps ensure that you’re only reaching people within areas that you serve. For example, if your business only delivers within the United States, then you’d want to set your campaigns up to only specifically target US visitors. Similarly, you can get even more local, down to DMA (designated market area) and sometimes even the zip code level.

However, one caveat with geotargeting is that it can greatly limit your reach. It’s better to set broader geographical boundaries and combine it with other optimization tactics, rather than get too narrowly targeted.

5)     Retarget your landing pages! If you’re a HubSpot customer, chances are you’re constantly creating new landing pages to help drive new and targeted promotions. Make sure you’re maximizing the power of those targeted campaigns by retargeting visitors to those landing pages. At Perfect Audience, we’ve made it incredibly simple for HubSpot customers to automatically create retargeting audiences based on your HubSpot Smart Lists and landing pages. To learn more, visit

 

RETARGETING BEST PRACTICES, CONT’D.

   

The greatest targeting in the world won’t matter if your ads fall flat. Good creative is essential for effective retargeting.

Clearly define what you want to accomplish When retargeting, you’ll want speak to your potential customers with a clear, concise message. The best way to craft that is to ensure your ads are developed to meet a clearly defined objective. The following are some of the most common objectives that retargeting helps accomplish.

•    Improve brand awareness

•    Remind your visitor of their prior interest

•    Feature new incentives to encourage a conversion

•    Cross-sell or upsell new products and services

Design your ads to be interesting and engaging

When you’re designing your ads, follow three basic tenets to capture your audience’s attention:

•    Be relevant. Consider your audience’s interests. What messages would be relevant to their interests?

•    Be concise. Space is at a premium; offer a clear value proposition.

•    Be compelling. Use bold, engaging imagery. Use strong call to actions. Give people good reasons to pay attention and to take action.

Personalize the experience further by serving dynamic product ads As mentioned above, dynamic retargeting is a very powerful and efficient tool for marketers to personalize ads and reach interested customers. Make sure you’re importing your product feed into your retargeting platform so you can take advantage of them. The difference between a targeted message about a specific product and a general brand claim can be huge. At Perfect Audience, we typically tend to see a 2-3x boost in click rates for dynamic retargeting campaigns vs. static retargeting campaigns.

05 /

MEASURING AND OPTIMIZING PERFORMANCE

ROI in a nutshell

 

1.    Blacklisting placements

2.    Set look-back windows

3.    Adjust frequency caps

4.    Attribute viewthroughs

5.    A/B testing

Block or blacklist poorly performing sites

Launching a campaign is simple. In comparison, optimizing those campaigns can feel very daunting, as it’s not always clear where to start. However, we’ve found one of the most effective tactics for optimizing performance is thankfully one of the simplest: blacklist or block sites that aren’t meeting your conversion goals.

To avoid making decisions too hastily, start out by looking back at a month of data and try blocking sites that aren’t meeting your goals. Don’t worry about being too selective – you can always reverse your decisions and unblock sites if you want to give it another chance or gather more data.

 

Optimize your lookback window

A look-back window represents the window of time for which you want to continue targeting a visitor. For example, if your lookback window is 14 days, your campaigns will target anyone who’s visited your website within the last 14 days.

There’s a balance you want to strike with your look-back window. The longer the look-back window, the larger your audience. However, users who visited your site further back in time are less likely to return and convert than those who visited your site more recently. Conversely, a shorter look-back window could lead to better performance, but it could also significantly restrict the size of the audience you reach.

The default look-back window for display ad campaigns is often set at 30 days. It’s a good default, because it balances audience size with conversion likelihood.

With that said, as you become more familiar with running and optimizing your campaigns, you’ll want to revisit that 30-day number and see what makes the most sense for your business. To better estimate an optimal lookback window, take a look at your conversion paths and determine the time period where the purchase life cycle most often resolves. What’s the typical lag time between a user’s first visit and a purchase? What’s the time frame in which 80% of your conversions are completed? Those numbers should give you a good starting point.



Consider setting manual frequency caps

Have you ever seen an ad so often you started getting annoyed with the brand and the product? Frequency caps limit the times someone will see your ads to help you avoid this problem. Some retargeting platforms like Perfect Audience, will optimize the frequency caps to balance clicks and conversions with overexposure. Sometimes it can be helpful to take control and set custom caps.

If you’re selling a product which is more of an impulse buy, you might want to combine a higher frequency cap with a shorter lookback window, so you’re serving more ads per day. Conversely, if you have a longer selling cycle, you might want to adjust your frequency caps to show fewer ads per day, but over a longer look-back window.

Don’t just rely on clicks: embrace view-through conversions

If you’re used to measuring your online performance solely based on click data, it can be a challenging shift to also start determining value based on view-through (or post-impression) data. However, there are a few reasons why you should rethink your last-click mentality:

•    Unlike search ads, most people do not click on display ads. In 2013, Google

reported an average banner ad CTR of

5

0.11%.

•    Studies have shown that most display ad clicks are driven by a very small percentage of the population. 85% of all clicks are accounted for by only 8% of total Internet users.

•    To make matters worse, these “heavy clickers” tend to skew older and are less

6

affluent  – probably not the audience you’re most interested in acquiring.

The first problem with relying only on click data is that it’ll end up underreporting performance. You’ll risk turning off a campaign because it didn’t deliver clicks, when in fact, it may have had a significant role in driving post-impression, non-clickbased responses.

The second problem is that optimizing campaigns solely based on click data can actually end up hurting your bottom line. This is because you may end up optimizing for visitors who may not be representative of users who are more likely to purchase, convert, or offer the highest lifetime value.


 

5      

6        

WHAT IS VIEW-THROUGH ATTRIBUTION?

 

A view-through conversion occurs when a user is exposed to a display ad and doesn’t click it, but converts on the advertiser’s website at a later point in time.

 

The idea behind view-through conversions is that an ad imprints some branding value onto the potential customer, even if it doesn’t drive a direct click. Eventually, with enough exposure and increased awareness, the customer then engages in a bottom-of-the-funnel activity such as searching for the particular brand or product before visiting the advertiser’s website and making a purchase.

Learn more about view-through attribution here.

Conduct A/B tests to measure incremental lift

Just because an ad receives credit for a conversion doesn’t mean it deserves it. Without ever seeing a single ad, some non-zero portion of your visitors would’ve returned to your site and converted anyway.

Conducting A/B tests can help you determine how much credit your retargeting campaigns should actually get (whether you’re measuring on click-through conversions, view-through conversions, or a combination of both).

To conduct an A/B lift test, you’ll want to split your audience into two groups: a test and a control. The test group is served your retargeting ad, while the control group is served a random PSA (public service announcement) ad.

 

WHEN CONDUCTING AN A/B TEST, TRY TO KEEP YOUR TEST AND CONTROL AS PURE AS POSSIBLE:

 

1.    Randomly assign a sample of new visitors to your control group and keep that group separate from your test group. It’s important that your control group is not served your ad during the test.

2.    Your test and control samples don’t have to be equal in size, but you do want to make sure that there are enough people in each group to ensure statistical significance.

There are a number of different

calculators available online to help you figure this number out.

3. Run the A/B test for at least a couple conversion cycles. For example, if your look-back window is 7 days because most of your conversions occur within that period, run the test for at least 2 weeks.

Once you have the results, you’ll want to compare the data using the following formula:

Test Conversions -

PSA Conversions

               CONVERSION ATTRIBUTION RATE % =                                        

Test Conversions

LET’S ILLUSTRATE WITH SOME SAMPLE DATA.

 

CAMPAIGN

IMPRESSIONS

VTC’S

TEST CAMPAIGN

400,000

100

PSA CAMPAIGN

100,000

20

First, normalize the data to get everything on the same scale:

CAMPAIGN

IMPRESSIONS

VTC’S

TEST CAMPAIGN

400,000

100

PSA CAMPAIGN

400,000

80

Then do the math:

100 - 80

            CONVERSION ATTRIBUTION RATE % =                      

20

= 20%

This test helps us determine that 20% of the conversions are incremental and attributable to your retargeting campaign.


06 / CONCLUSION

Get started today

 

“Retargeting can be one of the best ways to attract the right customers and capture additional revenue.”

- Noah Kagan,

Founder, AppSumo Retargeting is an incredibly powerful tool for turning passer-byes into loyal customers, and should be an essential part of your outbound marketing toolkit.

It not only allows you to re-and re-engage with your best targets and prospects, it gives you opportunities to provide value by delivering personalized, engaging content.

We hope this guide was helpful in providing strategies and ideas for getting the most value from your retargeting efforts. To learn more about retargeting and marketing resources, visit and .

 


Sometimes you’ll hear this referred to as a “tracking pixel”.

A tracking tag will only capture non-personally identifiable information. Meaning, while you can track users based on their on-site behaviors, you can’t tie it to any personal information like name, address, contact info, etc.


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